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Biology
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  1.Father of cytology is Robert hooke.2.Cell is the Fundamental, structural and functional unit of all living organisms.3.Robert hook discovered cell in 1665..!im le microsco e, com ound microsco e and electron microsco e are discovered res ectively by #nton$von$leeu%enhock, francis and &acharis  'onnson, knell and ruska.5.!mallest cell (yco lasma gallice ticum.6.)argest cell *gg of ostrich.+.)ongest and smallest human cells are erve cell, latelets.-.)ongest unicellular and multicellular lant cell #cetabularia , fibre of ramie boehmeria nivea/.0.Cell theory in 1-30 stated that ody of all organisms are made of cells %hich are units of both structure and function of living. Cells srcinate from re$eisting cells. he structure and functions of living are due to cumulative activities of cells.14.Cell %all is com osed of Cellulose, lignin, ectin etc.11.acterial cell %all is made of e tidoglycan.12.Fungi cell %all is made of Chitin,chitosan etc.13.ro%n algae cell %all is made of #lginic acid.1.Cyto lasmic bridges in lant cells that maintain connectivity is lasmodesmata.15.lasma membrane is living and com osed of )i id and rotein.16.%ing to !electively ermeable nature lasma membrane hel s in assive trans ort and osmosis.1+.roto lasm is divided into Cyto lasm and nucleo lasm. 7t rovides matri of cell.1-.ucleo lasm contains uclear chromatin and nucleoli.10.ucleo lasm is the site en&yme activities and formation of ! indle roteins. 7t is the seat of synthesis of 8#,#,#8 and ribosomal submits.24.ucleo lasm is also kno%n as 9aryolym h.21.ucleus is discovered by Robert bro%n, 1-31.22.ucleus consist of uclear membrane, nucleo lasm, nucleolus, nuclear chromatin.23.ucleus contain :enes res onsible for heredity.2.ucleus is not resent in !ieve tube, mammalian RC, cells of hloem.25.(ultinucleate lant cells are called Coenocytes and animal cells synctium.26.ucleolus is the site of iogenesis of ribosomes.2+.he double membrane cell organelles are (itochondria, lastid.2-.(itochondria hel s in formation of *nergy rich units of #.20.(itochondria is also called o%er house of the cell.34.)argest cyto lasmic organelle in lant is lastid.31.lastids are of three ty es )euco last colourless/, chloro last green/, chromo last other than green/.32.)ysosomes are kno%n as !uicidal bag due to the resence of hydrolytic autolytic/ en&ymes.33.*ndo lasmic reticulum is of t%o ty es Rough and smooth.3.R*R is involved in rotein synthesis and !*R in li id and steroid synthesis.  35.;atery fluid in vacuoles is Cell sa surrounded by tono last.36.:olgi a aratus includes Cisternae, vesicles, vacuoles.3+.7n lants golgi a aratus is called 8ictyosomes.3-.:olgi a aratus hel s in the formation of )ysosome, eroysome, aerosome in s erm.30.:olgi a aratus is also called raffic olice of the cell.4.he microbodies are eroysome, s haerosome, glyoysome.1.Ribosomes are of t%o ty es +4! and -4!.2.Ribosomes are the site of rotein synthesis.3.ame the non membranous cell organelle $ Centrosome, basal bodies..Centrosome hel in formation of ! indle fibre in cell division.5.asal bodies are also called le haro last and kinetosome.6.Cilia and flagella in basal body hel in locomotion.+.%hen mutation takes lace %ith the hel of eternal factors like $rays or gamma rays it is called induced mutation.-.%ho first observed induced mutation $ <.= (uller.0.Father of radiation genetics $ <.= (uller.54.8isease caused by chromosomal abnormality >disorder is !yndrome.51.7! ? 7rritable bo%el syndrome , #78! ? ac@uired immune deficiency syndrome.52.!ym toms are collectively kno%n as !yndrome.53.7n do%ns syndrome>21 st  trisomy, the no. of chromosome resent is + or 2nA1/.5.rocess of re lication of 8# to 8# ? Re lication, 8# to R#? transcri tion, R# to rotein? translation.55.!# ? !ino acido thymonucleinico.56.i of chromosomal arm is elomere.5+.! indle fibres are attached to chromosomal Centromere.5-.Centromere located in the middle of the chromosomal arm is !ubmetacentric.50.:iant olytene chromosomes are found in !alivary gland of droso hila.64.7ndividual %ith identical air of genetic factor is <omo&ygous.61.Father of genetics is (endel.62.7f a hybrid tallt/ is crossed %ith homo&ygous tall/ then ercent of tall is 144B.63.henoty e ratio of mendels monohybrid cross in F2 generation is 31.6.Disual e ression of livings is called henoty e.65.itrogenous base resent in R# but absent in 8# is Eracil.66.8ouble heli model of 8# is discovered by ;atson and crick.6+.:ot nobel ri&e for discovery of genetic code $ <. 9horana.6-.ri loid3n/ tissues are found in *ndos erm.60.Com onent of nucleotide is !ugar,nigrogenous base and hos hate.+4.ccurance of chromosome in more than one di loid set is oly loidy.+1.7ncom lete dominance is found in (irabilis 'ala a.+2.:erm lasm theory %as given by ;eisman.+3.*n&yme that hel in transcri tion is ranscri tase.  +.lood contains lasma55B/ and cor uscles5B/. Cor uscles are again divided into RCerythrocyte/, ;Cleucocyte/, lateletsthrombocyte/.+5.one forming rocess is steogenesis %hile cartilage forming rocess is chondrogenesis.+6.one forming cells are called steoblast and cartilage forming cells are called chondroblast.++.(a'or com onent of bone is Calcium hos hate.+-.#nimal connective tissue connects 8ifferent tissue system.+0.*ssential element for human blood clotting is Calcium.-4.:oblet cells are resent in !ecretory tissue.-1.!yncitium contains (ore than one nucleus.-2.!ebaceous gland is an eam le of <olocrine gland.-3.ilirubin comes from <aemoglobin.-.hagocytes is erformed by (onocyte.-5.!alivary gland is an eam le of *ocrine gland.-6.7n the female, RC count is about 514 5. -+.(yeloid tissue roduces latelets, RC, granular ;C.--.<)D,) stands for $lym hocyte.-0.he < of human blood is +..04.!tomach is made u of Columnar e ithelium.01.7ncreased ca acity of hybrids over the arents is called <ybrid vigourheterosis/.02.Con'ugative three nitrogenous base of mR# is Codon. 7t carries the information of an amino acid.03.he flo% of genetic information from gene to rotein is called Central dogma. 7t has t%o art transcri tion and translation.0.;hat is transcri tion $ Formation of mR# from 8# by the hel of transcri tase. en&ymes. ;hen an organism roduces 8# from R#, it is kno%n as reverse transcri tion found in #78! virus.05.;hat is translation $ roduction of rotein from mR# by the hel of rR# and AR#.06.he techni@ue associated in forensic science %ith 8# is 8# finger rinting.0+.;hat is linkage $ !ome genes or factors being located on some chromosomes %ere sho%n to inherit together or to stay together. hese genes are kno%n as linked genes and the henomenan as linkage. 7t is an ece tion to mendels la%. 7t is discovered by .< (organ in 1011.0-.R# contains Eracil instead of thiamine.00.iochemical nature of gene %as discovered by #very, (eleod and (c Carty.144.Ratio of mendels first la% is 31 for henoty e and 121 for genoty e.141.(endels first la% is based on (onohybrid cross.142.(endels second la% is based on 8ihybrid cross.143.(endels second la% ratio is 0331 for henoty e, 12212121 for genoty e.14.(utation %as first observed by <ugo$de$Dries and is called father of mutation theory. <is e eriment %as based on enothora )amarckianaa lant also called Gevening rimosH/.145.;hen mutation takes lace at a articular oint it is called oint mutation mutation.  146.(inerals are divided into (a'or or macro element and minor or micro element.14+.(a'or elements are Carbon, hydrogen, oygen, nitrogen, hos horus, sul hur and minor are manganese, oron, Iinc, (olybdenum.14-.he deficiency of nitrogen in lants causes Chlorosis and delay in flo%ering.140.otassium taken u lant in ionic form is needed for !tomatal movement and maintenance of ermeability.114.7ron is absorbed in Ferric form. 7t is resent in cytochromes and several en&ymes. 7ts deficiency causes chlorosis in lants.111.rotein, carbohydrate, fat are body constructive and energy roducing food and vitamins, minerals are body rotective nutrients.112.*nergy used in animal body is measured in Calorie unit.113.7n balanced diet the ratio of carbohydrate, rotein and fat should be in 11.11.7n an adult and healthy human the daily re@uirement of energy is 3444kcal %hich comes from 144 gm rotein, 144 gm fat and 44gm carbohydrate.115.(R ? asal metabolic rate.116.(R value of adult male is 4kcal>m 2 >hr but in female is 35kcal>m 2 >hr.11+.Cellulose from carbohydrate hel s in eristalsis and roughage function.11-.he term vitamin %as introduced by Casimir funk in 1012.110.*n&ymes are rimarily made u of rotein along %ith some non rotein arts.124.he rotein art of en&yme is called # oen&yme and non rotein art co$factor.121.# oen&yme along %ith cofactor as a %hole is termed <oloen&yme.122.)ysosome en&yme is resent in our saliva,tear and s%eat %hich kills bacteria of different food stuff.123.7n humans 3 ty es of salivary glands are resent. hese are arotidJ sublingualJ submailary.12.#moeba sho%s food ca turing by t%o main mechanisms as hagocytosis engulfment of solid food/ and inocytosis dra%ing li@uid material/.125.<ydra takes food through mouth arts of <y ostome.126.7n co% and other gra&ing animals they have  chambered stomach called Reminant stomach stomach.12+.Rabbit,guinea ig are called Co ro hagy because they have the habit of taking undigested stool second time. hey digest cellulose in their caecum. 12-.1gm of carbohydrate yield .1kcal. 1gm of rotein yield .2 kcal. 1gm of fat yield 0.3kcal.120.eristalsis is the food ro ulsion in eso hagus.134.Reverse eristalsis is called Domiting.131.Domiting centre is located in (edulla oblongata.132.;ho coined the term hagocytosis (etchnikoff.133.;ho coined the term inocytosis *d%ard of le%is.13.(icrotubules are cell organelles %hich hel in organi&ing Centrioles and determining structure of cytoskeleton.
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