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Rome. AES World History. By the end of this lesson:. 1. Explain the structure of the gov’t of the Roman Republic. Be sure to include the following terms: republic, Senate, consuls, veto, checks and balances
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Rome AES World History By the end of this lesson:
  • 1. Explain the structure of the gov’t of the Roman Republic. Be sure to include the following terms: republic, Senate, consuls, veto, checks and balances
  • 2. “In terms of defense, trade and governing outlying districts, Rome’s location was ideal.” Do you agree with this statement? Why or why not?
  • 3. What were some social conflicts that existed because of inequality w/in the Roman empire? Outcomes?
  • 4. What factors helped Rome expand successfully?
  • Legend
  • Romulus and Remus
  • Video: Roman Empire 101: Founding Myths
  • Physical setting
  • Base for controlling E and W Mediterranean.
  • Probs: vulnerable to invasion through Alps and from sea.
  • Dif from Greece b/c
  • Unity w/in region
  • Farming: Veggies, olives, grapes, citrus
  • Early people
  • Etruscans (late 600s BC)
  • Cultural influence: written langlater adapted by Romans.
  • Fine clothing, pottery, jewelry, metal, wood, paved roads, drained marshes, constructed sewers.
  • Etruscan Custom later adopted
  • Parade for conquering military leaders.
  • Location of Rome
  • Protected from Sea Invasion
  • On river’s easiest crossing, center of land trade routes.
  • Roman Gov’t
  • Est A republic: form of gov’t where voters elect officials to run the state.
  • Vote: ONLY adult males
  • 3 main groups of citizens governed:
  • Senate, Popular Assembly, and Officials (called magistrates)
  • 1. Senate
  • Most powerful of 3 governing bodies.
  • 300 members
  • Jobs:
  • Controlled public funds
  • Decided foreign policy
  • Could act as court
  • In times of emergency: propose dictator (only ruled for 6 mo)
  • 2. Popular Assemblies
  • Citizens get together and vote on laws and elected officials
  • Some assemblies voted on war or peace, some had judicial roles.
  • Tribunes: (10 elected officials) elected by assemblies. Job: could refuse to approve Senate bills and judged actions of public officials. (checks and balances!)
  • 3. Magistrates
  • Public officials
  • 2 Consuls : Chief executives (like Presidents)
  • Jobs:
  • Ran gov’t and military commanders.
  • Appointed dictators
  • Powers: Could veto (Latin for ”I forbid”) acts of other consul, governed with the advice of the Senate.
  • To help Consuls:
  • Romans elected Praetors: commanded armies in times of war and oversaw legal system in peace. They also created lists of potential judges and jurors.
  • The Census!
  • Censors: Elected every 5 years only for 18mos. Job: registered citizens acc to wealth, could apt candidates to Senate, and oversaw moral conduct of citizens.
  • Checks and Balances
  • Prevented any one part of the gov’t from becoming too powerful.
  • Let’s make this more confusing! 
  • Changes were made to the composition of the assemblies and elected officials based on the common people’s attempts to win more rights.
  • The Conflict of the Orders
  • Roman Society divided b/w 2 social classes after 509 BC: patricians and plebians.
  • Patricians: powerful aristocratic class. Controlled gov’t. Provided financial, social, and legal support in exchange for political backing and loyalty.
  • Plebians: All other citizens.
  • Plebians suffered
  • Couldn’t hold public office or serve in the military.
  • Didn’t know what the laws were because they weren’t written down! Judge stated laws and inly Patricians were judges.
  • Changes Made
  • Plebians demanded change and led strikes. Eventually forced Romans to write down laws.
  • The Twelve Tables: placed in public square.
  • More rights for Plebians
  • By 300BC, wealthy Plebians AND Patricians joined to form Roman Nobility.
  • Then, only POOR people discriminated against, not Plebians.
  • Officials Limited
  • Only rich nobles could hold office, b/c of lack of salary.
  • Nobles controlled the Senate and dominated the republic.
  • Video Clips!
  • Greece and Roman Politics - Ancient Greek and Roman Gov’t For 3rd graders
  • Main Ideas about gov’t
  • Roman government was supposed to give normal people (poor) a voice in gov’t
  • There were checks and balances to ensure that certain parts of gov’t didn’t get too powerful
  • If people felt like they weren’t getting a fair deal, they could appeal to try to change the way the gov’t was run.
  • Extending the Republic
  • Many wars.
  • Army: all adult males w/min property must serve army.
  • Strict discipline in army. Good org, training, high morale
  • Parts of the Army
  • Legions: most imp unit (4500-6000 male citizens)
  • Auxilia: army units of non-citizen men. Video Clips!
  • Wise Policies
  • Conquered people also got partial citizenship and political power
  • Could own property and marry but not vote.
  • Rome made treaties and alliances w/distant cities. Allies promised to help military in times of need.
  • Conquered Regions
  • Also, conquered people provided land for resettled farmers. Helped to maintain military control, spread language, law and culture.
  • Brain Pop Time!
  • Roman Republic style! Yeah! Roman Republic
  • Family
  • Most imp unit: center of religion, morals, education.
  • Father=paterfamilias: authority. Conduced religious ceremonies, made all imp decisions, supervised son’s education.
  • Roman Women
  • Higher Status than Greek!
  • Mother managed household, did buying and helped entertain guests. Wife Swap clip!
  • Religion
  • Identified gods w/Greek gods.
  • Observe will of gods by looking at organs of sacrificed animals or flight of birds.
  • By the end of this lesson:
  • 1. Explain the structure of the gov’t of the Roman Republic. Be sure to include the following terms: republic, Senate, consuls, veto, checks and balances
  • 2. “In terms of defense, trade and governing outlying districts, Rome’s location was ideal.” Do you agree with this statement? Why or why not?
  • 3. What were some social conflicts that existed because of inequality w/in the Roman empire? Outcomes?
  • 4. What factors helped Rome expand successfully?
  • 5. What were the final results of the Punic Wars?
  • 6. How did the gov’t and social structure of Rome change as a result of the conquest of new territories?
  • Roman Expansion
  • The entire Italian peninsula south of Rubicon River
  • Burden of defending
  • Conflict with Carthage (originally Phoenician colony) powerful city on coast of N. Africa.
  • Fought 3 wars b/w 264 and 146 BC: Punic Wars
  • Rome=better army, easier to defend
  • Carthage=better navy, more wealth
  • 1st Punic War
  • Rome won in 241 BC
  • Carthage had to pay (indemnity) for damages caused to Rome. Gave up control of Sicily.
  • 2nd Punic War (218 BC)
  • Hannibal: created army in Spain w/infantry, cavalry and war elephants!
  • Crossed Alps from France into Italy: many died! Video: Roman Empire 101: Hannibal And his elephant
  • Hannibal is one crazy awesome general!
  • Won many victories against the Romans.
  • BUT Rome invaded N. Africa and turned the tables. Battle of Zama.
  • Rome wins 2nd Punic War
  • Again, Carthage pays indemnity and gives up navy and Spanish colonies.
  • 3rd Punic War
  • Some Romans hated Carthage at this point, sieged Carthage, enslaved population.
  • Salted their fields!
  • Conquest of Hellenistic East
  • Won war with Macedonia in 197 BC
  • Problems of Roman Expansion
  • Larger territory forced change in operation.
  • Senate gained almost complete control of army and foreign policy. Nobles gained more power.
  • No more freebie citizenships
  • New territories only given rules and taxes!
  • Provinces Separately
  • Governed by someone appointed by Senate. NOT closely monitored. Often took bribes and ignored needs of the people. Tax collectors lined pockets.
  • Changes in Agriculture
  • Large estates w/slaves (Latifundia)
  • Rome depended on grain from provinces.
  • Farmers lost land and livestock during Punic Warsand were forced to sell what they had and move into the cities . Some couldn’t find jobs and depended on gov’t for food.
  • Worse: couldn’t serve in military!
  • Growth of Commerce and Social Change
  • Inc. trade.
  • New class of business and landowners (equites) had great wealth and increased political influence.
  • Many jobless
  • Weakened ideals of discipline and devotion to the state.
  • Exchange of ideas
  • New religions and cultures from conquered territories.
  • Slaves taken from territories. Some treated badly.
  • Spartacus! Slave. Led revolt but killed. 6000 of his followers crucified.
  • Check up
  • 1. What were the final results of the Punic Wars?
  • 2. How did the gov’t and social structure of Rome change as a result of the conquest of new territories?
  • Video: Rise of the Roman Empire: Brain pop!
  • By the end of the lesson
  • 1. What was the First Triumverate? Why was it formed?
  • 2. Identify Marius, Sulla, Pompey, Cleopatra, Marc Antony, Nero, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius
  • 3. Describe the significance of the reign of Julius Caesar.
  • 4. Contrast the rule of the Julio-Claudians w/ the rule of the Good Emperors
  • 2 Bros try to do the right thing….
  • Tiberius and Gaius
  • The Roman Empire
  • Tiberius: 1st attempt to change Rome.
  • Some Senators used public land for private purposes. So, Tiberius limited amt of public land Senators could use.
  • Moved landless citizens to work on Senators’ old land.
  • Senators and sympathizers clubbed him to death.
  • Gaius: Tiberius’bro
  • Elected 123 BC
  • Introduced using public funds to buy grain for poor people and sell to them for low prices. Gaius killed in a riot. Marked new trend: use violence to get what you want!
  • The Social War
  • Italian cities wanted right to run for office in Rome. Senate refused so the Italian allies rebelled.
  • Very bloody, Italian States well trained
  • Italian cities beaten but Senate granted benefits of citizenship.
  • Changes to Military
  • Consul: Marius: military hero. Signed up any citizen to serve in army regardless of land ownership.
  • Soldiers were paid and kept booty
  • Led to volunteer army
  • Soldiers could advance even if poor. Armies became loyal to leaders instead of gov’t.
  • Consul Lucius Cornelius Sulla
  • Good general. When consulship ended Marius tried to stop him from commanding military.
  • So, Sulla marched legions on Rome led to civil war.
  • Results: Sulla won and executed hundreds who opposed him
  • Dictator Sulla (82-79 B.C.)
  • Reforms: restore power to Senate. Inc by 300 members.
  • Change in thought about military commanders counting on loyalty of soldiers to do bidding.
  • The 1stTriumverate
  • Julius Caesar: popular
  • Good speaker, gained support from poor citizens of Rome.
  • Made him UNPOPULAR with Senate so he teamed up w/2 generals: Gaius Pompey and Licinius Crassus to create the 1stTriumverate
  • Caesar becomes consul 59BC
  • Brought Gaul under Roman rule and wrote about victories in Commentaries on the Gallic Wars.
  • Became famous.
  • Crassus died but Pompey grew jealous.
  • Pompey Persuades Senate
  • To force Caesar to return home w/o army.
  • Caesar marched his army to Rome in 49BC and Pompey and followers ran away to Greece.
  • Caesar defeated Pompey in Greece, secured power in Italy and Spain and made Cleopatra of Egypt an ally.
  • Cleopatra!
  • Video Clips:
  • Brain Pop: Cleopatra
  • HH Cleopatra
  • HH Cleopatra and Mark Antony
  • Dictator for life 44 BC
  • Good politician: granted citizenship foppl in provinces, gave land to veterans, and grain to poor.
  • Reduced Senate to advisory council and increased to 900 members.
  • He controlled everything although it was a republic.
  • Conspiracy!
  • Senators and conservatives didn’t like Caesar’s power. 2 of his friends organized conspiracy against him (Brutus and Longinus).
  • Stabbed Caesar to death in the Senate. (The Ides of March)
  • The 2ndTriumverate
  • Scramble for power after Caesar’s death.
  • Octavian (Caesar’s nephew), Marc Antony (general), and Lepidus (Caesar’s second in command) became the 2ndTriumverate (43 BC).
  • Antony and Octavian divide empire
  • E=Antony
  • W=Octavian
  • Octavian persuaded Senate to decl. war on Antony and Cleopatra. Octavian captured Alexandria and A and C committed suicide.
  • Video: Roman Empire 101: Mark Antony and Friends
  • Octavian: princeps(1st citizen)
  • NOT called emperor b/c scared of uncle’s fate.
  • Senate gave him the title “Augustus”or “the revered one”
  • Historians refer to him as the first Roman Emperor even though he didn’t use this title.
  • Expanded territory.
  • The Julio-Claudians
  • Relatives of Julius Caesar who ruled the empire from AD 14-68
  • Crazy and inconsistent leaders
  • Caligula: apt horse as consul
  • Nero: Many believe he started a great fire throughout Rome. People also hated him because of his cruel and unpredictable policies.
  • The Good Emperors
  • 5 different emperors who ruled from AD96-180
  • Some accomplishments:
  • Added new areas to empire, supported the arts, organized and Romanized the provinces, built fortifications to protect boundaries of empire, gave up territories conquered, studied philosophy
  • Brain Pop: Rise of the Roman Empire!
  • The Good Emperors
  • Nerva, Trajan , Hadrian, Anthony Pius, MarcusAurelius
  • Check up!
  • 1. What was the First Triumverate? Why was it formed?
  • 2. Identify Marius, Sulla, Pompey, Cleopatra, Marc Antony, Nero, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius
  • 3. Describe the significance of the reign of Julius Caesar.
  • 4. Contrast the rule of the Julio-Claudians w/ the rule of the Good Emperors.
  • By the end of the lesson
  • 1. What is PaxRomana? Colonus?
  • 2. how did the army contribute to the protection and expansion of the Roman empire?
  • 3. How did the life of wealthy Romans compare to that of poor Romans?
  • Roman Society and Culture
  • Empire building helped by
  • Law, military org, widespread trade, transportation. Held empire together for 200+ years.
  • PaxRomana
  • 27BC-AD180 (From beginning of Augustus’s reign to the death of Marcus Aurelius.
  • Emperors of PaxRomana(p157)
  • Brain Pop! PaxRomana
  • Gov’t
  • Strongest unifying force in empire.
  • Maintained order, enforced laws, defended frontiers.
  • Emperor: made all policy decisions, apt officials who controlled provinces and ran entire gov’t.
  • Provinces
  • Gov’t kept closer check on provincial governors: citizens in provinces could appeal governor’s decision directly to the emperor.
  • Replica Rome’s
  • Many new cities looked just like mini-Rome.
  • Senate building, theaters, public baths, aqueducts, paved streets, sewer system.
  • Wealthy citizens donated money for public buildings, streets, schools and entertainment.
  • Laws
  • Changed and adapted based on 12 Tablesto address needs of huge empire.
  • New laws passed and old laws interpreted by judges for fit new circumstances.
  • New Belief: basic legal principles apply to ALL people.
  • The Army
  • Frontier and border armies turned into cited.
  • Over 300,000 soldiers
  • Border tribes helped army in exchange for citizenship after 25 years of service.
  • Huge walls and forts around frontier. Some still there!
  • Trade and Transport
  • Agriculture: primary occupation
  • Italy: large estates for olive and wine prod
  • Provinces: small farms
  • Colonus: new tenant farmer replaces slaves
  • Rented small amt of land from owner and had to stay for a spec amount of time and pay owner w/crops (like tenant farmer!)
  • Trade
  • Easy! Low taxes and Roman currency everywhere!
  • Rome and Alexandria: greatest commercial centers.
  • ‘’Äll Roads Lead to Rome”
  • Living Conditions
  • Inequality b/w rich and poor.
  • Most poor: ate cheese, bread, and fruit. Many ate only cereal and vegetables and not Lucky Charms!
  • entertainment
  • Theater, chariot racing, Colosseum (wild beasts vs beasts or vs humans OR gladiators!)
  • Entertainment imp b/c distracted poor from miserable conditions.
  • Science, Engineering and Architecture
  • Collected info.
  • Applied Greek knowledge in cite planning, water and sewage systems, imp farming and breeding livestock.
  • Constructed roads, bridges, aqueducts, amphitheaters and public buildings
  • Use of concrete!
  • Unlike Greeks, could build arch and vaulted dome!
  • Education
  • Sons learn from fathers about duties of citizenship.
  • Daughters learn about how to take care of the house.
  • Boys went to school and often learned from former Greek slaves.
  • Literature
  • Good emperors and Augustus encouraged dev of art and literature.
  • Virgil: Aeneid: story of prince of Troy
  • Ovid: Metamorphoses: collection of myths
  • Tacitus: historian: Annals: story of Julio-Clauduan Emperors. Criticism of gov’t est by Augustus.
  • Tacitus worried about the rich living of some and lack of public virtue and decline of Roman political freedom.
  • Check Up!
  • 1. What is PaxRomana? Colonus?
  • 2. how did the army contribute to the protection and expansion of the Roman empire?
  • 3. How did the life of wealthy Romans compare to that of poor Romans?
  • By the end of the section
  • 1. In what ways was Christianity like Judaism?
  • 2. Why were Christians persecuted in the Roman Empire?
  • The Rise of Christianity
  • Jews exempt from having to worship emperor and gods. Monitheistic
  • Jews wanted independence from Rome and began to home for Messiah (divinely appointed liberator)
  • Jewish Revolts
  • After revolt of AD 66 to AD70 Romans slaughtered thousands of Jews and destroyed their Second Temple. Only one wall left: Wailing Wall.
  • Jewish Leadership
  • Rabbis(men who studied scriptures) became religious leaders instead of priests.
  • Jews banned in Jerusalem after revolt suppressed in AD 135.
  • Jesus appears at this time
  • The Life an Teachings of Jesus
  • Gathered disciples
  • Taught 2 great rules: Love God more than anything and love your neighbor as yourself.
  • Forgiveness
  • Death of Jesus
  • Crucified. Rose from the dead for 40 days
  • Through His death, all others can achieve redemption.
  • Christianity and its Rivals
  • Appeal inc as life grew more dif.
  • Accepted everyone: poor and rich. In this life: be good citizen, obey laws, charity and help poor and outcast.
  • Persecution of the Christians
  • More likely than Jews to try to convert people.
  • Appeared an attack on Roman religion and law.
  • Romans outlawed Christianity. Some executed. Martyrs.
  • By 300ss, Christian Church became too large to punish all members, Roman law accepted Christianity as a religion.
  • The Success of Christianity
  • Imp with Emperor Constantine
  • In AD 391: Christian emperors persecuted Pagans! Role reversal!
  • Organization of the Church
  • Bishops, patriarchs (bishops of empire cities), pope: bishop of Rome.
  • Church councils: strengthened early Christian Church: Trinity doctrine proclaimed in the council at Nicaea.
  • Check up!
  • 1. In what ways was Christianity like Judaism?
  • 2. Why were Christians persecuted in the Roman Empire?
  • Fall of Rome
  • 1. Describe the Problems of the Roman Empire in the AD 200s.
  • 2. What was he system of divided rule? What problems were caused by this org?
  • 3. What were the major reasons for the collapse of the Roman Empire in the west? Give examples to help support your answer.
  • The Fall of the Roman Empir
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