The 1562 Map of America by Diego Gutiérrez

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Americae sive quartae orbis partis nova et exactissima descriptio.
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    AmericAe sive quArtAe orbis pArtis novA et exActissimA descriptio. (English version below) Auctore Diego Gutiero Philippi Regis Hisp. etc. Cosmographo. Hiero Cock Excude.En 1562, con el título expresado arriba, se preparó un espectacular mapa, describiendo la costa este deAmérica del Norte, América Central y del Sur en su totalidad y porciones de las costas occidentales deEuropa y África.Compuesto por 6 hojas de grabado unidas, totalizando un formato de 93 por 86 cm, el más grande a esemomento, lleva la siguiente inscripción: Esta cuarta parte del mundo sigue siendo desconocida para todoslos geógrafos hasta el año 1497, momento en el que fue descubierta por Américo Vespucio al servicio delrey de Castilla, después de lo cual también se le pone el nombre de su descubridor . Otorgando el méritodel descubrimiento al florentino, en lugar del genovés Colón, creencia común el la época.Era un mapa oficial, reconocido por Felipe II, Rey de España y su media hermana Margarita de Parma,regente de los Países Bajos. Representa la dominación española en el nuevo mundo, definiendo los límitesde la esfera de autoridad de España, a la vez que reconoce la presencia francesa y portuguesa en elcontinente. En este sentido, hay tres escudos de armas representados: en la parte inferior derecha, en elOcéano Atlántico, está el escudo de armas de la corona de Portugal, en América del Norte están grabadosdos escudos: el de la izquierda del imperio de los Habsburgo españoles y el de la derecha de la coronafrancesa.A pesar de que no aparece una escala de latitud, el Ecuador y los Trópicos de Cáncer y de Capricornio seven claramente y las medidas entre estas latitudes fijas pueden ayudar en determinar las distancias delmapa entero.El mapa ofrece una rica vista ilustrada de América llena de nombres e imágenes que se habían popularizado en Europa después del Descubrimiento. Dibujos de loros, monos, sirenas, monstruos marinos,caníbales, gigantes Patagones y un volcán en erupción en México, complementan los numerososasentamientos, ríos, montañas y cabos. El mapa correctamente reconoce la presencia de las cuenca los ríosAmazonas y Paraná, el Lago Titicaca, la ubicación de Potosí, la Ciudad de México, la Florida y varios puntos de las costas.El magnífico mapa fue realizado por Diego Gutiérrez, cartógrafo de la Casa de Contratación desde 1554hasta al menos 1569 de acuerdo con los documentos del Archivo General de Indias de Sevilla. El grabador fue Jerónimo Cock, un reconocido artista flamenco que trabajaba en Amberes, el mayor centro de grabadosen la Europa del siglo XVI.   Prepararon un mapa diplomático con el cual España proclamaba a las naciones de Europa su territorio,delineando claramente sus esferas de control con una línea ancha para el Trópico de Cáncer. Españareclamaba para sí todas las tierras ubicadas al sur de éste. Fuentes:  http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/frontiers/gutierrz2.html  The 1562 Map of America by Diego Gutiérrez The late fifteenth-century landfall by Christopher Columbus on the islandof Guanahani, in the Bahamas, forced open the gates to a whole newworld for the Spanish and other European explorers. America, as it cameto be called, became the destination for numerous expeditions andadventures from 1492 onward. Through papal bulls in 1493 and the famous Treaty of Tordesillas betweenSpain and Portugal in 1494, the two Iberian powers laid claim to the entire Western Hemisphere, althoughto them the newly found lands were extensions of Asia, or islands off its coasts.During the next seventy years, a veritable avalanche of individual and state-supported efforts ensued todiscover, explore, and understand the fullness of America, although initially the efforts were concentratedalong its extensive coastlines. Exploratory forays continued well into the eighteenth century until everysegment of America, from Canada to Tierra del Fuego, was visitedand studied.In sixteenth-century Europe, authoritative knowledge of thegeography of America was based upon the observations of primarilySpanish- and Portuguese-sponsored explorers and navigators, asinterpreted and plotted by official cosmographers and cartographers of the crowns of Spain's new overseas empire. As Europe's vision of trade and land acquisition shifted from the Mediterranean Sea to theAtlantic Ocean, the information that this institution acquired about itsnew territories was vital to Spain's world power status.Comprehensive changes in long-held geographical concepts were produced as practical observation countered time-honored ideas aboutthe shape of the world and the areas that comprised it.In 1562 Diego Gutiérrez, a Spanish cartographer from the respected Casa de la Contratación , andHieronymus Cock, a noted engraver from Antwerp, collaborated in the preparation of a spectacular andornate map of what was then referred to as the fourth part of the world, America. It was the largestengraved map of America to that time. Map of the Western Hemisphere     Substantial mystery surrounds this map more than four hundred years after its creation. Confusion over itsauthorship, the location of its printing, and the reasons even for its preparation remains. The fact that onlytwo known copies of this printed map are extant, one located in the Library of Congress (Washington,D.C.) and the other preserved in the British Library (London) no doubt contributes to our lack of knowledge about this valuable and authoritative depiction of Spanish dominion in its new world, America.Entitled  Americae sive quartae orbis partis nova et exactissima descriptio. (Auctore Diego GutieroPhilippi Regis Hisp. etc.Cosmographo. Hiero Cock Excude. 1562) , the map depicts theeastern coast of North America, all of Central and South America,and portions of the western coasts of Europe and Africa. While onlya longitude scale appears, it is clear that the map covers an area bounded between 0° and 115° longitude west of Greenwich, and57° north and 70° south latitude. While a latitude scale does notappear, the Equator and the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn areclearly shown and measurements between these fixed latitudes canassist in determining distances for the entire map. Six engravedsheets are neatly joined to form a single map which measures 93 by86 centimeters. Because this map ends abruptly on the east and the west and the ornamental border on theLibrary of Congress copy appears only at the top and the bottom of the map, one might believe that a worldmap was planned, of which only the American part was completed. However, this map contains a uniquetitle identifying America as the fourth part of the world. It seems logical that only a map of the WesternHemisphere was intended and rendered. It is apparent that one of the intentions in preparing the map was todefine clearly Spain's America for the other European powers who might have designs on the region.The map provides a richly illustrated view of an America filled with images andnames that had been popularized in Europe following Columbus's 1492 voyage of discovery. Images of parrots, monkeys, mermaids, fearsome sea creatures,cannibals, Patagonian giants, and an erupting volcano in central Mexicocomplement the numerous settlements, rivers, mountains, and capes named.According to Ruth Putnam, in California: The Name (Berkeley, 1917), theGutiérrez map contains one of the earliest references to California, for on it C.California is located on the southern tip of Baja California. The map correctlyrecognizes the presence of the Amazon River system, other rivers of SouthAmerica, Lake Titicaca, the location of Potosí and Mexico City, Florida and thegreater southeastern part of the United States, and myriad coastal features of South,Central, North, and Caribbean America. It was to be the largest printed Spanish mapof America to appear before the late eighteenth century.There are three coats of arms on the Gutiérrez map: in the lower right, in the Atlantic Ocean east of Argentina is the coat of arms of the crown of Portugal, and Portuguese interests in India are noted in theEastern Atlantic La Flota De Portugal Que Va Par Calicute . In the southeastern and southwestern parts of what is now the United States are two coats of arms: the one on the left is that of the Spanish HabsburgEmpire; to its right is that of the French crown. Gutiérrez's  Americae is an official map, recognizing bothPhilip II, King of Spain from 1556 to 1598, and his half-sister Margarita de Parma, Regent of the Netherlands from 1559 to 1562.The following inscription (in Latin on the map) gives evidence, seventy years after Columbus's historicvoyage, of the popular belief that Americus Vespucius discovered America in 1497: This fourth part of  Sea creatures in the North Atlantic   Giants of Patagonia     the world remained unknown to all geographers until the year 1497, at which time it was discovered byAmericus Vespucius serving the King of Castile, whereupon it alsoobtained a name from the discoverer. The map has been used as evidence in two South American boundarydisputes. It was reproduced in part in Frontières entre le Brésil et laGuyane Française. Mémoire présenté par les États Unis de Brésil. Atlas  (Paris, 1899) and  Juicio de límites entre el Perú y Bolivia. Prueba peruana presentada al gobierno de la República Argentina por Victor M.Maurtua.  Atlas (Barcelona, 1906). A tracing of it was made in thenineteenth century by Johann Georg Kohl for his hand-copied collectionof maps in European libraries and archives for the study of the discovery,exploration, and mapping of North America, now in the Geography andMap Division, Library of Congress.The Library of Congress's copy of the Gutiérrez map was formerly in the collection of the Duke of Gothain Germany. Sold at a 1932 auction in Munich, it was subsequently acquired by an American book dealer who sold it to Lessing J. Rosenwald, the well-known collector of illustrated books. The Gutiérrez map wasamong the items received when Mr. Rosenwald gave a portion of his collection to the Library of Congressin 1949.Diego Gutiérrez was a cosmographer at the Casa de laContratación , in its office of Pilot Major. His father, alsonamed Diego Gutiérrez , was the head of a Sevillean familymap- and instrument-making business from the early part of the sixteenth century until his death in 1554. The elder Diego Gutiérrez , also a map maker of note, becameassociated with the work of the Casa de la Contratación  and catered to the navigational information needs of navigators and pilots engaged in that extraordinary time of exploration and travel to America, practically at itsinception in the early part of the sixteenth century.The mapmaker Diego Gutiérrez had been named cosmographer in the Casa de la Contratación by a royalappointment on October 22, 1554, following the death of his father Diego in January 1554. He received asalary of 6,000 maravedis because of his known ability to make navigational charts and other nauticalinstruments. On the famous 1562 map of America he is identified as the Auctore Diego Gutiero PhilippiRegis Hisp. Etc. That is, Diego Gutiérrez , cosmographer at the time of the reign of Philip II of Spain. He served as a cosmographer in the Casa de la Contratación from 1554 to at least 1569, according todocuments in the  Archive General de Indias in Seville. He was among a number of cartographers in the  Casa de la Contratación , known as cosmographers, including Alonso de Chaves (Pilot Major), FranciscoFalero, Jersnimo de Chaves, Sancho Gutiérrez (Diego's brother), and Alonso de Santa Cruz. DiegoGutiérrez was distinguished from the rest as oficial de hacer cartas de marear [ an official who makes seacharts ]). Diego's brother, Sancho Gutiérrez, became a cosmographer in the Casa on May 18, 1553.The engraver of the map, Hieronymus Cock, was a Flemish artist of recognized talent who worked inAntwerp. He has been considered one of the most important engravers and printmakers in Europe in thesixteenth century. In the second half of the sixteenth century, Antwerp became the major center for the production of prints and books in the Low Countries. Cock was the son of Jan Wellens or Willems, aliasCock, and had a brother, Mathias Cock; they were both noted painters. Born at Antwerp in 1510, Cock was Early reference to California   Detail of the fine engraving of Hieronymus  
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