0616 Immuniz

Publish in



Please download to get full document.

View again

of 22
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
1. Immunization Abdul Ghaffar Microbiology and Immunology 2. Milestones in immunization <ul><li>1500BC…
  • 1. Immunization Abdul Ghaffar Microbiology and Immunology
  • 2. Milestones in immunization <ul><li>1500BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turks introduce variolation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3000BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of sniffing powdered small pox crust in Egypt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2000BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sniffing of small pox crust in China </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1700AD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of variolation in England and later in the US </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. <ul><li>The wife of the British Ambassador in </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey, in March 1717 wrote, following </li></ul><ul><li>the variolation of her son, to a friend in </li></ul><ul><li>England: “The small pox, so fatal, so general </li></ul><ul><li>amongst us, is entirely harmless here </li></ul><ul><li>by the invention of ingrafting….I am </li></ul><ul><li>patriot enough to bring this invention into </li></ul><ul><li>fashion in England. </li></ul>Introduction of variolation
  • 4. Milestones in immunization <ul><li>1780AD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Edward Jenner discovers small pox vaccine </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Edward Jenner Discovery of small pox vaccine
  • 6. Edward Jenner Among patients awaiting small pox vaccination
  • 7. Modern era of the vaccine <ul><li>1920s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diphtheria and Tetanus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1934 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pertussis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1955 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salk polio </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1885 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rabies vaccine (Pasteur) </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. Modern era of the vaccine <ul><li>1960s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mumps measles and rubella virus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sabin polio </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1990s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hepatitis and varicella </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1985 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Haemophilus </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Pre- & post-vaccine incidence of common preventable diseases
  • 10. Different modes of acquiring immunity Immunity Natural resistance Artificial Natural Passive Artificial Natural Active Acquired
  • 11. Passive Immunity <ul><li>Colostral transfer of IgA </li></ul><ul><li>Placental transfer of IgG </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies or immunoglobulins </li></ul><ul><li>Immune cells </li></ul>Natural Artificial
  • 12. Passive Immunization   disease   indication antibody source human, horse diphtheria, tetanus prophylaxis, therapy vericella zoster human immunodeficiencies gas gangrene, botulism, snake bite, scorpion sting horse post-exposure rabies, human post-exposure hypogamma-globulinemia human prophylaxis
  • 13. Advantages and Disadvantages of Passive Immunization <ul><li>serum sickness </li></ul><ul><li>immediate protection </li></ul><ul><li>no long term protection </li></ul><ul><li>graft vs. host disease ( cell graft only ) </li></ul><ul><li>risk of hepatitis and Aids </li></ul>Advantages Disadvantages
  • 14. Active Immunization <ul><li>exposure to sub-clinical infections </li></ul><ul><li>Attenuated organisms </li></ul><ul><li>killed organisms </li></ul><ul><li>sub-cellular fragments </li></ul><ul><li>toxins </li></ul><ul><li>others </li></ul>Natural Artificial
  • 15. Live Attenuated Vaccines <ul><li>tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not used in this country </li></ul></ul><ul><li>polio* </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not used in std. schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><li>measles, mumps & rubella </li></ul><ul><li>yellow fever </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military and travelers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varicella zoster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>children with no history of chicken pox </li></ul></ul><ul><li>hepatitis A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not required in SC </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. Killed Whole-Organism Vaccines <ul><li>polio </li></ul><ul><li>influenza </li></ul><ul><ul><li>elderly and at risk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>typhoid, cholera, plague </li></ul><ul><ul><li>epidemics and travelers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rabies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>post exposure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>pertussis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>replaced by the acellular vaccine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Q fever </li></ul><ul><ul><li>population at risk </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. Microbial Fragment Vaccines <ul><li>Bordetella. Pertussis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>virulence factor protein </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Haemophilus influenzae B </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protein conjugated polysaccharide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Streptococcus pneumoniae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polysaccharide mixture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neisseria meningitidis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>polysaccharide </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. Microbial Fragment Vaccines <ul><li>Clostridium tetani (tetanus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inactivated toxin (toxoid) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Corynebacterium diphtheriae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inactivated toxin (toxoid) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vibrio cholerae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>toxin subunits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis B virus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cloned in yeast </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. Modification of Toxin to Toxoid Toxin toxin moiety antigenic determinants chemical modification Toxoid
  • 20. <ul><li>anti-Idiotype Vaccine </li></ul>Future Vaccines <ul><li>Immuno-dominant peptide </li></ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul>
  • 21. Recommended Childhood Immunization Schedule
  • 22. Adverse Events Occurring Within 48 Hours DTP of Vaccination   Event   Frequency <ul><li>local </li></ul><ul><ul><li>redness, swelling, pain </li></ul></ul>1 in 2-3 doses <ul><li>systemic: Mild/moderate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fever, drowsiness, fretfulness vomiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>anorexia </li></ul></ul>1 in 2-3 doses 1 in 5-15 doses <ul><li>systemic: more serious </li></ul><ul><ul><li>persistent crying, fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collapse, convulsions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>acute encephalopathy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>permanent neurological deficit </li></ul></ul>1 in 100-300 doses 1 in 1750 doses 1 in 100,000 doses 1 in 300,000 doses
  • We Need Your Support
    Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

    Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

    No, Thanks