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M. P. Zacharof and R. W. Lovitt / APCBEE Procedia 2( 2012) 50 – 56 51 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com 1. Introduction A great number of Gram (+) bacteria and Gram (-) bacteria produce during their protein structure growth, (eitherofproteins orAPCBEE substances
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  Available online atwww.sciencedirect.com APCBEE Procedia2(2012)50 – 56 ICB! 2012 A#ril $%&' 2012' Bano' *+ailand Bacteriocins Prod,ced b- actic Acid BacteriaA /eview Article Bacteriocins được sản xuất bởi vi khuẩn axit LacticMột bài viết đánh giá . P. ac+aro 3and /. 4. ovitt b ªMultidisciplinary Nanotechnology Centre, Swansea University, Swansea, SA2 8PP, UK College o !ngineering, Multidisciplinary Nanotechnology Centre, Swansea University, Swansea, SA2 8PP, UK  Abstract A reat n,mber o ram (7) and ram neative (%) bacteria #rod,ce d,rin t+eir rowt+'s,bstances o #rotein str,ct,re(eit+er #roteins or #ol-#e#tides) #ossessin antimicrobial activities' called bacteriocins. Alt+o,+ bacteriocins co,ld becateori8ed as antibiotics' t+e- are not. *+e ma9or dierence between bacteriocins and antibioticsis t+at bacteriocinsrestrict t+eir activit- to strains o s#ecies related to t+e #rod,cin s#ecies and #artic,larl- to strainso t+e same s#ecies'antibiotics on t+e ot+er +and +ave a wider activit- s#ectr,m and even i t+eir activit- is restrictedt+is does not s+ow an- #reerential eect on closel- related strains. In addition' bacteriocins are ribosomall- s-nt+esi8edand #rod,ced d,rin t+e #rimar- #+ase o rowt+' t+o,+ antibiotics are ,s,all- secondar- metabolites. Amon t+e ram(7) bacteria' lactic acid bacteria (AB) es#eciall-'  #acto acilli +ave ained #artic,lar attention nowada-s' d,e to t+e #rod,ction o bacteriocins.*+ese s,bstances can be a##lied in t+e ood ind,str- as nat,ral #reservatives. *+e ,se o AB ando t+eir metabolic #rod,cts is enerall- considered as sae (/A!' rade :ne). *+e a##lication o t+e #rod,cedantimicrobial com#o,nds asa nat,ral barrier aainst #at+oens and ood s#oilae ca,sed b- bacterial aents +as been #roven to be eicient. ;isin ist+e onl- bacteriocin t+at +as been oiciall- em#lo-ed in t+e ood ind,str- and its ,se +as beena##roved worldwide.Bacteriocins can be a##lied on a #,riied or on a cr,de orm or t+ro,+ t+e ,se o a #rod,ct #revio,sl- ermented wit+ a bacteriocin #rod,cin strain as an inredient in ood #rocessin or incor#orated t+ro,+ a bacteriocin #rod,cin strain(starter c,lt,re). < 2012 P,blis+ed b- Elsevier B.=. !election and>or #eer review ,nder res#onsibilit-o Asia%Paciic < 2012 P,blis+ed b- Elsevier B.=. !election and>or #eer review ,nder res#onsibilit- o Asia%Paciic C+emical' Bioloical ? Environmental Enineerin !ociet- C+emical' Bioloical ? Environmental Enineerin !ociet- :#en access ,nder CC B@%;C%; license.  Keywords$ actic acid bacteria'  #acto acilli, Bacteriocins' ;isin' Plantaricins' antibioticsCorres#ondin a,t+or. *el. 00$151$6D.   !%&ail address m-rto8ac+aro1D&1-a+oo.com 2212%6$0& < 2012 P,blis+ed b- Elsevier B.=. !election and>or #eer review ,nder res#onsibilit- o Asia%Paciic C+emical'Bioloical ? Environmental Enineerin !ociet-:#en access ,nder CC B@%;C%; license.doi 10.1016>9.a#cbee.2012.06.010    M' P' (acharo and )' *' #ovitt  +APC!! Procedia2-2./201.  13  51 1.Introduction A reat n,mber o ram (7) bacteria and ram (%) bacteria #rod,ce d,rin t+eir rowt+' s,bstances o  #rotein str,ct,re (eit+er #roteins or #ol-#e#tides) #ossessin antimicrobial activities'called bacteriocins.Alt+o,+ bacteriocins co,ld be cateori8ed as antibiotics' t+e- are not. *+e ma9or dierence between bacteriocins and antibiotics is t+at bacteriocins restrict t+eir activit- to strains o s#ecies related to t+e #rod,cin s#ecies and #artic,larl- to strains o t+e same s#ecies. Antibiotics on t+eot+er +and' +ave a wider activit- s#ectr,m and even i t+eir activit- is restricted t+is does not s+ow an- #reerential eect on closel-related strains. In addition' bacteriocins are ribosomall- s-nt+esi8ed and #rod,cedd,rin t+e #rimar- #+ase o rowt+' t+o,+ antibiotics are ,s,all- secondar- metabolites F1G. Bacteriocins ,s,all-+ave low molec,lar wei+t (rarel- over 10 a) t+e- ,ndero #osttranslational modiication and can beeasil- deraded b- #roteol-tic en8-mes es#eciall- b- t+e #roteases o t+e mammalian astrointestinaltract' w+ic+ maes t+emsae or +,man cons,m#tion. Bacteriocins are in eneral cationic' am#+i#at+icmolec,les as t+e- contain aneHcess o l-s-l and arin-l resid,es F'G. *+e- are ,s,all- ,nstr,ct,red w+en t+e- areincor#orated ina,eo,s sol,tions b,t w+en eH#osed to str,ct,re #romotin solvents s,c+ astriol,roet+anol or miHed wit+anionic #+os#+oli#ids membranes t+e- orm a +elical str,ct,reF5G.Amon t+e ram #ositive (7) bacteria'lactic acid bacteria (AB) +ave ained #artic,lar attention nowada-s' d,e to t+e #rod,ction o bacteriocinsF10G'F20'21'22G. *+ese s,bstances can be a##lied in t+e ood ind,str- as nat,ral #reservatives. *+e ,se o AB and o t+eir metabolic #rod,cts is enerall- considered as sae (/A!' rade:ne). *+e a##lication o t+e #rod,ced antimicrobial com#o,nds as a nat,ral barrier aainst #at+oens and oods#oilae ca,sed b- bacterial aents +as been #roven to be eicient F2G. /'/'Classiication o #A acteriocins ost o AB bacteriocins are small (J10 a) cationic' +eat%stable' am#+i#+ilic andmembrane #ermeabili8in #e#tides. *+e- can be divided into t+ree ma9or classes' t+eir classiication was constantl-revised t+ro,+o,t t+e last decade d,e to t+e eHtensive researc+ reali8ed F' G.an-o t+ese bacteriocinsa##ear to eH+ibit relativel- little adsor#tion s#eciicit-. *+e cell wall o ram #ositive(7) bacteria allows #assae o relativel- lare molec,les. *+e anionic cell s,race #ol-mers lie teic+oicand li#oteic+oic acids'w+ic+ are #art o t+e cell,lar wall' are im#ortant in t+e initial interaction o anionic bacteriocins #rod,ced b-ram #ositive (7) bacteria. *+e AB bacteriocins +ave reater antibacterial activit- atlower #K val,es(below 5) b- means t+at t+eir adsor#tion to t+e cell s,race o ram #ositive (7) bacteria incl,din t+e #rod,cin cells is #K de#endent. 4it+in an- class o bacteriocin t+ere ma- be aminoacid se,ence+omoloies not onl- wit+in t+e mat,re #e#tide' b,t also in t+e ;%terminal leader reion and t+e associated #roteins in bacteriocin secretion and #rocessin F2G. /'/'/'Class 4$ 5he #anti iotics Class I' t+e lantibiotics' are a class o #e#tide s,bstances t+at contain t+e c+aracteristic #ol-c-clic t+ioet+er amino acids lant+ionine or met+-llant+ionine' as well as t+e ,nsat,rated amino acidsde+-droalanine and 2%aminoisob,t-ric acid. *+e- are ,rt+er devised into two t-#es based on str,ct,ralsimilarities. *-#e Acom#rises o relativel- elonated' screw s+a#ed' #ositivel- c+ared' am#+i#atic'leHible molec,les. *+eir molec,lar mass varies between 2 to  a and t+e- enerall- act t+ro,+ #oreormation' t+ro,+ membranede#olari8ation' o t+e c-to#lasmic membrane o t+e sensitive taret s#ecies' nisin andlacticin 1$ are t+ema9or re#resentatives o t+is ro,#. *-#e B lantibiotics' are lob,lar in str,ct,re andinterere wit+ cell,lar en8-matic reactions. *+eir molec,lar mass' lies between 2 to  a and eit+er t+e-+ave no net c+are or anet neative c+are F6G'F$G       52  M' P' (acharo and )' *' #ovitt+APC!! Procedia2-2./201.  13  Class I AB bacteriocins are small (J5a) +eat stable #e#tides' w+ic+ areeHtensivel- modiied ater translation res,ltin in t+e ormation o c+aracteristic t+ioet+er amino acidslant+ionine (an) and %met+-llant+ionine (ean). *+ese arise ater a two%ste# #rocess. irstl- ene encodedserine and t+reoninecan be s,b9ect to en8-matic de+-dration to ive rise to de+-droalanine (+a) andde+-drob,t-rine (+b).!,bse,entl-' t+iol ro,#s rom nei+bo,rin c-steins attac t+e do,ble bond o +aand +b -ieldin bot+an and ean res#ectivel-. *+is condensation between two nei+bo,rin resid,esres,lts in t+e ormationo covalentl- closed rins wit+in t+e ormerl- linear #e#tide conerrin bot+ str,ct,reand ,nctionalit-. Alsomembers o t+is ro,# contain %alanine. *+is latter amino acid resid,e is derivedrom de+-droalanineres,ltin rom t+e de+-dration o a serine resid,e F' G F2G. /'/'2'Class 44$ the Non%#anti iotics Class II bacteriocins are also small (J10 a) relativel- +eat stable' non%lant+ioninecontainin membraneactive #e#tides. *+e- are divided into two s,bclasses. !,bclass II a' #ediocin%lie or listeria active bacteriocins s,bclass #ossesses an ;%terminal consens,s se,ence *-r%l-%Asn%l-%=al%Laa%C-s. *+e-s+ow a +i+ deree o + omolo- (0 M%60M) w+en t+e corres#ondin amino acidse,ences are alined andt+e- are s-nt+esi8ed wit+ a leader #e#tide w+ic+ is removed b- #roteol-tic #rocessin',s,all- ater a do,blel-cine resid,e or eHam#le lie #ediocin PA%1' saacin A F&G. !,bclass II b reers totwo%com#onent (twose#arate #e#tides) bacteriocins b- means t+at re,ire two #e#tides to wor s-neristicall- in order to +ave anantimicrobial activit-. actacin  and lactococcin  are members o t+is ro,# FDG. /'/'6'Class 444$ acteriocins *+is ro,# consists o +eat labile #roteins w+ic+ are in eneral o lare molec,lar wei+t (N0 a). *+isro,# +as not been eHtensivel- investiated. Bacteriocins re#resentin t+is ro,# are+elv eticin I b-  #acto acillus helveticus and  enterol-sin #rod,ced b-  !nterococcus aeciu& F10G' F20' 21' 22G. *+e mostcommon bacteriocins #rod,ced b- AB are s,mmari8ed in *able 1.0. *able 1.0. ost im#ortant bacteriocins #rod,ced b-  #acto acilli FDG' F6G' F10G' F2' ' G  BacteriocinBacteriocin Producing Strain actacin   #' 7ohnsonii spp' actocin $05  #' casei spp' actoccin   #' lactis spp' actococcin ;  #actococcus lactis var cre&oris  ;isin  #actococcus lactis spp' e,cocin K  #euconostoc spp' Plantaricin E' Plantaricin 4 Plantaricin O'  #' plantaru& spp Plantaricin ! 2.Biosynthesis and Immunity of LAB Bacteriocins As #revio,sl- reerred bacteriocins are ribosomall- s-nt+esi8ed and #osttranslationalmodiied #e#tides F&G'F2G.*+e enes encodin bacteriocin #rod,ction and imm,nit- are enerall- orani8edin o#eron cl,sters andcan be located on mobilisable elements s,c+ as c+romosome in association wit+trans#ons or on #lasmidsF$G.*+e bacteriocins are #rimaril- s-nt+esi8ed as bioloicall- inactive #re#e#tidescontainin an ;%terminalleader. *+e #re#e#tides are t+en modiied b- ot+er #roteins or amino acids encoded b-t+e bacteriocin ene
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