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SOCIAL ENTREPRENEUR, SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP, SOCIAL ENTERPRISE Three terms in quest of a theoretical framework Andrea Bassi 1. A sociological approach to social entrepreneurship 2. The macro level: social entrepreneurship function 3. The meso level: social enterprise function 4. The micro level: social entrepreneur function 5. Towards a theoretical framework of social entrepreneurship 2nd EMES International Conference on Social Enterprise 1-4 July 2009 - Trento 1 In the last few years
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  1SOCIAL ENTREPRENEUR, SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP, SOCIAL ENTERPRISEThree terms in quest of a theoretical framework Andrea Bassi1. A sociological approach to social entrepreneur ship  2. The macro level: social entrepreneurship function3. The meso level: social enterprise function4. The micro level: social entrepreneur function5. Towards a theoretical framework of social entrepreneurship2 nd EMES International Conference on Social Enterprise1-4 July 2009 - Trento  2In the last few years a new Dictionary of Nonprofit Terms and Concepts has been developedchallenging the previous ways through which scholars of social sciences were used to understandthe wide array of nonprofit organizations acting between the State and the market.In this new dictionary a central place acquired three terms: social entrepreneur, socialentrepreneurship and social enterprise , both in Europe and in North America.The aim of the paper is to analyze the sociological reason of this uprising of new terms in theacademic debate and the implication for legal status and management strategies of nonprofitorganizations.Public Sector Business Sector Third SectorSocial entrepreneur         Social entrepreneurship      Social enterprise   The term of  social entrepreneur  refers to a quality, a property of a person (an individual) andit concerns the ability and the capacity to deal with eminent social problems through the adoption of  the style of governance and management typical of an “ entrepreneurial approach ”. We can findsocial entrepreneur in any of the three sector: public, business and nonprofit.The term of  social entrepreneurship refers to a societal function. It is a function that eachsociety in any time of his history should fulfill. It is an impersonal, abstract, symbolic andgeneralized one. It can be carried out in any of the three sector, but usually the historical movementis from civil society to welfare State (and some time can be undertaken by the market in the form of  corporate social responsibility ).The term of  social enterprise refers to a single corporation, firm, organization, association,that owes several distinct characteristic and act coherently with them.Through the analysis of the most recent literature on the topic, the paper ends with theproposal of a synthesis of the current scientific debate introducing the issue of  leadership in thenonprofit and/or social sector.  31. A sociological approach to social entrepreneur ship  J. Schumpeter  42. The macro level: social entrepreneurship function Three different meanings of social entrepreneurship:a)   not-for-profit organizations starting for-profit or earned-income ventures; b)   anyone who starts a not-for-profit organization;  c)   business owners who integrate social responsibility into their operations.  J.G.Dees (1998, p. 1)Two main school of though:a) the Social Enterprise School : thisschool is focused on the generation of “earned - income” to serve a social mission.b) the Social Innovation School : this school is focused on establishing new and better ways toaddress social problems or meet social needs J.G.Dees and B.Battle Anderson (2006, p. 41)The first school defines “ social entrepreneurs ” simply as those who organize and operate businesses that support a “social” objective, even if they do it only by making money to subsidize  more direct, social-purpose activities (Ivi, p.41). It is coherent with the School the definition of  social enterprise constructed by the UnitedKingdom Department of Industry and T rade, which is “a business with primarily social objectives  whose surpluses are principally reinvested for that purpose in the business or in the community,rather than being driven by the need to maximize profit for shareholders and owners.” (Ivi, p. 43) ____________________The second school defines social entrepreneurs as individuals who reform or revolutionize thepatterns of producing social value, shifting resources into areas of higher yield for society (Ivi,p.44).According to this school entrepreneurship could happen in any sphere (Ivi, p.45). The school use the term “social entrepreneur” to describe innovators pursuing social change, thisreinforce the idea that social entrepreneurship need not be framed in terms of  income . It could bemore about outcomes , about social change (Ivi, p.45). __________________________We define social entrepreneurship as innovative, social value-creating activity that can occur withinor across the nonprofit, government, or business sectors (J.Wei-Skillern, 2008, p.1)

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