1936 Constitution of the USSR; Chapter 1; Organization of Soviet Society; Chapter 2; Organization of Soviet State.

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1936 CONSTITUTION OF THE USSR Adopted December 1936 CHAPTER I THE ORGANIZATION OF SOVIET SOCIETY ARTICLE 1. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is a socialist state of workers and peasants. ARTICLE 2. The Soviets of Working People's Deputies, which grew and attained strength as a result of the overthrow of the landlords and capitalists and the achievement of the dictatorship of the proletariat, constitute the political foundation of the U.S.S.R. ARTICLE 3. In the U.S.S.R. all power belongs
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  1936 CONSTITUTION OF THE USSR Adopted December 1936   CHAPTER I THE ORGANIZATION OF SOVIET SOCIETY ARTICLE 1.  The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is a socialist state of workers and  peasants. ARTICLE 2.  The Soviets of Working People's Deputies, which grew and attained strength as a result of the overthrow of the landlords and capitalists and the achievement of the dictatorship of the proletariat, constitute the political foundation of the U.S.S.R. ARTICLE 3.  In the U.S.S.R. all power belongs to the working people of town and country as represented by the Soviets of Working People's Deputies. ARTICLE 4.  The socialist system of economy and the socialist ownership of the means and instruments of production firmly established as a result of the abolition of the capitalist system of economy, the abrogation of private ownership of the means and instruments of production and the abolition of the exploitation of man by man, constitute' the economic foundation of the U.S.S.R. ARTICLE 5.  Socialist property in the U.S.S.R. exists either in the form of state property (the  possession of the whole people), or in the form of cooperative and collective-farm property (property of a collective farm or property of a cooperative association). ARTICLE 6.  The land, its natural deposits, waters, forests, mills, factories, mines, rail, water and air transport, banks, post, telegraph and telephones, large state-organized agricultural enterprises (state farms, machine and tractor stations and the like) as well as municipal enterprises and the bulk of the dwelling houses in the cities and industrial localities, are state  property, that is, belong to the whole people. ARTICLE 7.  Public enterprises in collective farms and cooperative organizations, with their livestock and implements, the products of the collective farms and cooperative organizations, as well as their common buildings, constitute the common socialist property of the collective farms and cooperative organizations. In addition to its basic income from the public collective-farm enterprise, every household in a collective farm has for its personal use a small plot of land  attached to the dwelling and, as its personal property, a subsidiary establishment on the plot, a dwelling house, livestock, poultry and minor agricultural implements in accordance with the statutes of the agricultural artel. ARTICLE 8.  The land occupied by collective farms is secured to them for their use free of charge and for an unlimited time, that is, in perpetuity. ARTICLE 9.  Alongside the socialist system of economy, which is the predominant form of economy in the U.S.S.R., the law permits the small private economy of individual peasants and handicraftsman based on their personal labor and precluding the exploitation of the labor of others. ARTICLE 10.  The right of citizens to personal ownership of their incomes from work and of their savings, of their dwelling houses and subsidiary household economy, their household furniture and utensils and articles of personal use and convenience, as well as the right of inheritance of personal property of citizens, is protected by law. ARTICLE 11.  The economic life of the U.S.S.R. is determined and directed by the state national economic plan with the aim of increasing the public wealth, of steadily improving the material conditions of the working people and raising their cultural level, of consolidating the independence of the U.S.S.R. and strengthening its defensive capacity. ARTICLE 12.  In the U.S.S.R. work is a duty and a matter of honor for every able-bodied citizen, in accordance with the principle: He who does not work, neither shall he eat. The principle applied in the U.S.S.R. is that of socialism: From each according to his ability, to each according to his work. CHAPTER II THE ORGANIZATION OF THE SOVIET STATE ARTICLE 13.  The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is a federal state, formed on the  basis of the voluntary association of Soviet Socialist Republics having equal rights, namely: The Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic  The Azerbaidjan Soviet Socialist Republic The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic The Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic The Tadjik Soviet Socialist Republic The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic The Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic The Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic The Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic. ARTICLE 14.  The jurisdiction of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, as represented  by its highest organs of state authority and organs of government, covers: a.   Representation of the Union in international relations, conclusion and ratification of treaties with other states;  b.   Questions of war and peace; c.   Admission of new republics into the U.S.S.R.; d.   Control over the observance of the Constitution of the U.S.S.R. and ensuring conformity of the Constitutions of the Union Republics with the Constitution of the U.S.S.R.; e.   Confirmation of alterations of boundaries between Union Republics; f.   Confirmation of the formation of new territories and regions and also of new Autonomous Republics within Union Republics; g.   Organization of the defense of the U.S.S.R. and direction of all the armed forces of the U.S.S.R.; h.   Foreign trade on the basis of state monopoly; i.   Safeguarding the security of the state;  j.   Establishment of the national economic plans of the U.S.S.R.; k.   Approval of the single state budget of the U.S.S.R. as well as of the taxes and revenues which go to the all-Union, Republican and local budgets; l.   Administration of the banks, industrial and agricultural establishments and enterprises and trading enterprises of all-Union importance; m.   Administration of transport and, communications; n.   Direction of the monetary and credit system; o.   Organization of state insurance;  p.   Raising and granting of loans; q.   Establishment of the basic principles for the use of land as well as for the use of natural deposits, forests and waters; r.   Establishment of the basic principles in the spheres of education and public health; s.   Organization of a uniform system of national economic statistics; t.   Establishment of the principles of labor legislation;  u.   Legislation on the judicial system and judicial procedure; criminal and civil codes; v.   Laws on citizenship of the Union; laws on the rights of foreigners; w.   Issuing of all-Union acts of amnesty. ARTICLE 15.  The sovereignty of the Union Republics is limited only within the  provisions set forth in  Article 14  of the Constitution of the U.S.S.R. Outside of these  provisions, each Union Republic exercises state authority independently. The U.S.S.R.  protects the sovereign rights of the Union Republics. ARTICLE 16.  Each Union Republic has its own Constitution, which takes account of the specific features of the Republic and is drawn up in full conformity with the Constitution of the U.S.S.R. ARTICLE 17.  To every Union Republic is reserved the right freely to secede from the U.S.S.R. ARTICLE 18.  The territory of a Union Republic may not be altered without its consent. ARTICLE 19.  The laws of the U.S.S.R. have the same force within the territory of every Union Republic. ARTICLE 20.  In the event of a discrepancy between a law of a Union RepubliL and an all-Union law, the all-Union law prevails. ARTICLE 21.  A single Union citizenship is established for all citizens of the U.S.S.R. Every citizen of a Union Republic is a citizen of the U.S.S.R. ARTICLE 22.  The Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic consists of the Altai, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Ordjonikidze, Maritime and Khabarovsk Territories; the Archangel, Vologda, Voronezh, Gorky, Ivanovo, Irkutsk, Kalinin, Kirov, Kuibyshev, Kursk, Leningrad, Molotov, Moscow, Murmansk, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orel, Penza, Rostov, Ryazan, Saratov, Sverdlovsk, Smolensk, Stalingrad, Tambov, Tula, Chelyabinsk, Chita, Chkalov and Yaroslavl Regions; The Tatar, Bashkir, Daghestan, Buryat-Mongolian, Kabardino-Balkarian, Kalmyk, Komi, Crimean, Mari, Mordovian, Volga German, North Ossetian, Udmurt, Checheno-Ingush, Chuvash and Yakut Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics; and the Adygei, Jewish, Karachai, Oirot, Khakass and Cherkess Autonomous Regions. ARTICLE 23.  The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic consists of the Vinnitsa, Volynsk, Voroshilovgrad, Dnepropetrovsk, Drogobych, Zhitomir, Zaporozhe, Izmail, Kamenets-Podolsk, Kiev, Kirovograd, Lvov, Nikolaev, Odessa, Poltava, Rovno, Stalino, Stanislav, Sumy, Tarnopol, Kharkov, Chemigov and Chernovitsy Regions.
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