2 b Enlightenment

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  GUIDE TO READING  The BIG Idea Ideas, Beliefs, and Values Enlighten-ment thinkers, or philosophes, believed all institu-tions should follow natural laws to produce the ideal society. Content Vocabulary ã philosophe (p. 548)  ã separation of powers (p. 548)  ã deism (p. 548)  ã laissez-faire (p. 550)  ã social contract (p. 551)  ã salon (p. 552)  Academic Vocabulary ã generation (p. 548)   ã arbitrary (p. 551)    People and Places ã John Locke (p . 546)  ã Montesquieu (p . 548)  ã Voltaire (p . 548)  ã Denis Diderot (p. 549)  ã Adam Smith (p . 550)  ã Cesare Beccaria (p. 550)  ã Jean-Jacques Rousseau (p . 551 )  ã Paris (p . 551)  ã Mary Wollstonecraft (p. 551)  ã London (p. 552)  ã John Wesley (p . 553)  Reading Strategy Summarizing Information  As you read, use a diagram like the one below to list some of the main ideas introduced during the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment  Applying the scientific method to their physical world, Enlightenment thinkers, or philosophes, reexamined all aspects of life—from government and justice to religion and women’s rights. They created a movement that influenced the entire Western world. Path to the Enlightenment  Eighteenth-century intellectuals used the ideas of the Scientific Revolution to reexamine all aspects of life. HISTORY & YOU Do you think you were born with some knowledge, or did you learn everything you know? Read about John Locke’s idea that when each of us is born, the mind is a tabula rasa, or blank slate. The Enlightenment was an eighteenth-century philosophical movement of intellectuals who were greatly impressed with the achievements of the Scientific Revolution. One of the favorite words of these intellectuals was reason. By this, they meant the application of the scientific method to an understanding of all life. They hoped that by using the scientific method, they could make progress toward a better society than the one they had inherited. Reason, natural law, hope, progress —these were com-mon words to the thinkers of the Enlightenment. The ideas of the Enlightenment would become a force for reform and eventu-ally revolution. John Locke The intellectuals of the Enlightenment were especially influ-enced by the ideas of two seventeenth-century Englishmen,  John Locke  and Isaac Newton. In his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke argued that every person was born with a tabula rasa, or blank mind: P RIMARY   S OURCE “Let us then suppose the mind to be . . . white paper, void of all characters, without any ideas. How comes it to be furnished? Whence has it all the materials of reason and knowledge? To this I answer, in one word, from experience. . . . Our observation, employed either about external sensible objects or about the internal operations of our minds perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is that which supplies our understanding with all the materials of thinking.” — John Locke, Essay Concerning Human Understanding Locke’s ideas suggested that people were molded by the experi-ences that came through their senses from the surrounding world. Major Ideasof the Enlightenment   overflow 546  N  S  W  E   Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection 400 miles400 kilometers00   Academy of ScienceObservatoryPalace inspired byVersaillesPublication of scientificor philosophical journalsUniversity Corsica Sardinia Sicily  4 0 °  N   5  0  °  N   0° 10°E10°W 20°E 30°E  ATLANTIC OCEAN  NorthSea ParisOxfordGlasgowGreenwich BerlinCopenhagenStockholmLeidenAmsterdamWarsawHalleGöttingenViennaPragueFrankfurtPadua Kraków MadridLisbonRomePisaFlorence Turin BolognaStrasbourg Munich LeipzigGda´nsk St.Petersburg UppsalaLondonEdinburghCambridgeGeneva EUROPE AND THE AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT  1. Place Based on the information given on this map, what did London and Berlin have in com-mon during the Enlightenment?2. Regions Pose and answer a question about the geographic distribution shown on this map. Enlightenment thinkers began to believe that if environments were changed and people were exposed to the right influ-ences, then people could be changed to create a new—and better—society. Isaac Newton The ideas of Isaac Newton also greatly influenced eighteenth-century intellectu-als. As you read earlier, Newton believed that the physical world and everything in it was like a giant machine. His “world-machine” operated according to natural laws, which could be uncovered through systematic investigation. The Enlightenment thinkers reasoned that if Newton was able to discover the natural laws that governed the physical world, then by applying his scientific methods, they would be able to discover the natural laws that governed human society. If all institutions would then follow these natural laws, the result would be an ideal society.   ✓ Reading Check    Explaining What did Enlightenment thinkers hope to accomplish? CHAPTER 17 Revolution and Enlightenment  547  Ideas of the Philosophes  The philosophes wanted to create a better society. HISTORY & YOU Do you remember what a monar-chy is? Read to learn about two other forms of government. The intellectuals of the Enlightenment were known by the French word philosophe  (FEEãluhãZAWF), meaning “philosopher.” Not all philosophes were French, however, and few were philoso-phers in the strict sense of the term. They were writers, professors, journalists, econ-omists, and above all, social reformers. They came chiefly from the nobility and the middle class. Most leaders of the Enlightenment were French, although the English had provided the philosophical inspiration for the move-ment. It was the French philosophes who affected intellectuals elsewhere and cre-ated a movement that influenced the entire Western world. The Role of Philosophy To the philosophes, the role of philosophy was to change the world. One writer said that the philosophe is one who “applies himself to the study of society with the purpose of making his kind better and happier.” One conducts this study by using reason, or an appeal to facts. A spirit of rational criticism was to be applied to every-thing, including religion and politics.The philosophes often disagreed. Span-ning almost a century, the Enlightenment evolved over time. Each succeeding generation  became more radical as it built on the contributions of the previous one. A few people, however, dominated the land-scape—Montesquieu (󰁍󰁁󰁈󰁎ãtuhsã KYOO), Voltaire, and Diderot (deeãDROH). Montesquieu Charles-Louis de Secondat, the baron de Montesquieu , was a French noble. His famous work The Spirit of the Laws  (1748) was a study of governments. In it, Montesquieu used the scientific method to try to find the natural laws that govern the social and polit-ical relationships of human beings.Montesquieu identified three basic kinds of governments: (1) republics, suitable for small states; (2) despotism, appropriate for large states; and (3) monarchies, ideal for moderate-sized states. He used England as an example of a monarchy.Montesquieu stated that England’s gov-ernment had three branches: the executive (the monarch), the legislative (Parliament), and the judicial (the courts of law). The gov-ernment functioned through a separation of powers.  In this separation, the executive, legislative, and judicial powers of the gov-ernment limit and control each other in a system of checks and balances. By prevent-ing any one person or group from gaining too much power, this system provides the greatest freedom and security for the state.The system of checks and balances through separation of powers was Mon-tesquieu’s most lasting contribution to political thought. Translation of his work into English made it available to American philosophes, who worked his principles into the United States Constitution. Voltaire The greatest figure of the Enlightenment was François-Marie Arouet, known simply as Voltaire.  A Parisian, Voltaire came from a prosperous middle-class family. His numerous writings brought him both fame and wealth.Voltaire was especially well known for his criticism of Christianity and his strong  belief in religious toleration. He fought against religious intolerance in France. In 1763 he penned his Treatise on Toleration, in which he reminded governments that “all men are brothers under God.”Throughout his life, Voltaire championed deism,  an eighteenth-century religious phi-losophy based on reason and natural law. Deism built on the idea of the Newtonian world-machine. In the Deists’ view, a mechanic (God) had created the universe. To Voltaire and most other philosophes, the universe was like a clock. God, the clock-maker, had created it, set it in motion, and allowed it to run without his interference and according to its own natural laws. 548 SECTION 2 The Enlightenment  Diderot Denis Diderot  went to the University of Paris. His father hoped Denis would pur-sue a career in law or the Church. He did neither. Instead, he became a writer. He studied and read in many subjects and languages.Diderot’s most famous contribution to the Enlightenment was the Encyclopedia, or Classified Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades, a 28-volume collection of knowl-edge that he edited. Published between 1751 and 1772, the Encyclopedia, according to Diderot, was to “change the general way of thinking.”The Encyclopedia  became a weapon against the old French society. Many of its articles attacked religious superstition and supported religious toleration. Others called for social, legal, and political reforms. Sold to doctors, clergymen, teachers, and lawyers, the Encyclopedia  spread Enlight-enment ideas.   ✓ Reading Check    Stating What ideas did Montesquieu add to the Enlightenment? New Social Sciences The belief in logic and reason pro-moted the beginnings of social sciences. HISTORY & YOU What do you think is the purpose of punishing criminals? Read to learn about argu-ments against extreme punishments. The philosophes, as we have seen,  believed that Newton’s methods could be used to discover the natural laws underly-ing all areas of human life. This led to what we would call the social sciences—areas such as economics and political science. Smith on Economics The Physiocrats and Scottish philosopher Adam Smith have been viewed as the founders of the modern social science of economics. The Physiocrats, a French group, were interested in identifying the natural economic laws that governed human soci-ety. They maintained that if individuals were free to pursue their own economic self-interest, all society would benefit.  Adam Smith 1723–1790 Scottish Economist and Philosopher “No society can surely be happy, of which the far greater part of the members are poor and miserable.” Someone reading this quote might think it srcinated with an American patriot or a French revolutionary. However, it actually came from Adam Smith, widely regarded as “the father of capitalism.” Besides being the archi-tect of the laissez-faire doctrine of government non-interference with commerce, and an opponent of heavy government taxation, Smith was also an outspoken advocate for ethical standards in society. His friends included Voltaire, Benjamin Franklin, and David Hume, three of the late eighteenth century’s most revolu-tionary thinkers. How did Adam Smith feel about the role of government?   “Those who can make you believe absurditiescan make you commit atrocities.” Voltaire’s words reflected his observations on history, and fore-shadowed atrocities yet to come. Outspoken against tyranny, ignorance, and the excesses of the Church, Voltaire never held his tongue, even in the face of threats. Forced to choose between exile and imprisonment after insulting a powerful French nobleman, Voltaire chose exile in England. While there he befriended Jonathan Swift and Alexander Pope and was influenced by John Locke and Sir Isaac Newton. He returned home more radical than ever, and his ideas later influenced both American and French revolutionaries. Voltaire spoke out against what subjects of his day?  Voltaire 1694–1778 French Philosopher  (  l   )  M u s  e e d  el   aV i  l  l   e d  eP  ar i   s  ,M u s  e e C  ar n av  al   et   ,P  ar i   s  /  L  a ur  o s  /   Gi  r  a u d  on /  B r i   d  g em anA r t  L i   b r  ar  y  , (  r  )  B  et  t  m ann /   C  OR B I   S 
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