All Accidents Are Incidents

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       Table of Contents 1   INTRODUCTION  .......................................................................................................................... 1 2   PART A- ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION  .................................................................................... 2 3   PART B- PREVENTATIVE ACTION  .......................................................................................... 6 4   PART C  –   IDENTIFICATION  ....................................................................................................... 9 5   CONCLUSION  ............................................................................................................................. 10 6   REFERENCES  ............................................................................................................................. 11 7   APPENDICES  .............................................................................................................................. 12  1 1   INTRODUCTION An accident is the final event in an unplanned process that results in injury or illness to an employee and possibly property damage. It is the final result or effect of a number of surface and root causes. An accident may be the result of many factors that have interacted in several ways. Workplace accidents are part of events that lead to a physical or psychological injury. In reality, there are different types of accidents involving physical, chemical,  biological and many more. Deaths and injuries can occur from hazardous substance exposures that appear to be entirely preventable. A high proportion of these incidents are caused by hazardous substances used in everyday domestic and workplace situations. ‘ A total of 57,975 chemical incidents were reported during the 10-year surveillance period. In 4,621 (8%) of these incidents, 15,506 persons were injured. Among them, 354 deaths occurred. The most commonly reported category of injured persons included employees of the responsible party (7,616 [49%]), members of the general public (4,737 [31%]), students exposed at school (1,730 [11%]), and responders to the incident (1,398 [9%]). Deaths occurred among members of the general public (190 [54%]), employees (154 [44%]), and responders (10 [3%]). The most frequent health effects experienced as a result of these incidents included respiratory irritation (7,443), dizziness or central nervous system problems (3,186), and headache (3,167). The three chemicals associated with the largest number of persons injured were carbon monoxide (2,364), ammonia (1,153), and chlorine (763)  [1] ’ . For example, in 13 September 2014 an accident was happened and the worker was died due to the exposure of hazardous chemical in Tapak bina, Johor. Victim was found unconscious after got out of the cabin. During the incident, he was carrying out the air-conditioner maintenance works. After going through an autopsy, the worker was found to be died due to Acute Pulmonary Disease. Pulmonary Disease is a progressive lung disease characterised b y increasing breathlessness or “need for air”  which usually occur due to long term smoking or air pollution. In this case, the worker was diagnosed to be attack by Acute  [3]  Pulmonary disease which is because the exposure to the hazardous chemical. This statement was being proved as during the investigation process there was a chemical spill found in the cabin where he performing his maintenance works. This accident has been chosen as my case study and the objective for this case study is basically to identify the ethical principles and commit to professional ethics and responsibilities and norms of engineering practice.  2 2   PART A- ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION   An incident investigation is a formal or systematic process which involves the documentation and analysis of a workplace event that resulted in a loss or the potential for loss, including a thorough examination of contributing factors. As responsible employer, we should act fast to the accident by having a proper accident investigation. Accident investigations are used as a finding to the root cause and implement corrective action. The investigation process should begin after arranging for first aid or medical treatment for the injured person(s). In getting started, remind everyone involved especially workers the investigation is to learn and prevent, not find fault. Steps of the investigation process include: 1.   Preserve/Document the Scene 2.   Collect Information 3.   Determine Root Causes 4.   Implement Corrective Actions Preserve/Document the Scene   When a serious incident occurs, the emergency response is clearly the most important first step to take which by informing the higher level management personnel. However, when the decision is made to conduct an investigation, the investigation should be commenced quickly as well. One of the first and most important actions to take is to secure the location of the incident. The decision to secure the scene of the incident may  best be made by local or management personnel. Securing the scene may be done even  before the formal decision to investigate is taken. Securing the scene of the incident is important to make sure that evidence is not moved or removed, which can easily happen after an incident. Securing the scene of the incident quickly is a great help for the investigation team in the fact-finding phase. Investigation team can use cone, tapes or even guard to secure the scene. If the incident is quite serious, the public authorities may also order that the scene of the incident be secured. As a guideline for the employers, United States Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) have prepared several tools that can be used while doing the investigation. The tools are as listed: ã  Appendix A: Incident Investigation Form ã  Appendix B: Incident Investigator’s Kit   ã  Appendix C: Tips for Video/Photo Documentation ã  Appendix D: Sketch the Scene Techniques
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