Anglo-American Literature

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1. Ignatius Joseph N Estroga MA-Eng Liceo de Cagayan University, Philippines 2. ãThe name England is derived from the Old English name ENGLALAND, which…
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  • 1. Ignatius Joseph N Estroga MA-Eng Liceo de Cagayan University, Philippines
  • 2. •The name "England" is derived from the Old English name ENGLALAND, which means “LAND OF THE ANGLES" ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 3. •Few surviving texts with little in common. •Language closer to modern German than modern English. •Frequently reflect non-English influence. •Beowulf, “The Wanderer”ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 4. I. The Anglo – Saxon Period: Britain before the Anglo- Saxons The Germanic Invasions Anglo- Saxon Society Anglo – Saxon Literature ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 5. England before the English • When the Romans arrived, they found the land inhabited by “Britons.” • known as the Celts • Stonehenge • no written language • absorbed into the Latin speaking Roman society Romans withdraw, leaving the Britons/Celts behind Invasions from the Northern Europe Anglo-Saxon bring Germanic languages ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 6. • By 600, Anglo-Saxons conquer the Britons • language becomes more Germanic • still retains some Latin • The Anglo-Saxons’ two urgings--war and wandering become part of the oral tradition • Beowulf is an example of an Anglo-Saxon hero taleBeowulf battles Grendel’s mother ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 7. •Literature: Beowulf , the earliest literature, the national epic of the Anglo-Saxon, one of the striking features - the use of alliteration •Alliteration ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 8. • By 700, Christian missionaries arrive to convert the pagans • Latin (the language of the Church) returns • King Alfred • the Britons become organized • first true king of the Britons • period of prosperity King Alfred brings an age of prosperity ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 9. •Works frequently of a religiously didactic content. •Written for performance at court or for festivals. ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 10. Trivia Who is the Father of English Literature? ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 11. Geoffrey Chaucer His family name derives from the French chausseur, meaning "shoemaker".
  • 12. • known as the Father of English literature • is widely considered the greatest English poet of the middle Ages • was the first poet to have been buried in Poet's Corner of Westminster Abbey. ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 13. • Social background: the Norman conquest under William, Duke of Normandy, the battle of Hastings in 1066; the mark of establishment of feudalism • Literature: Langland; Chaucer • Allegory • Ballad • Romance ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 14. The 3 Estates in the Middle Ages • The idea of estates, or orders, was encouraged during the Age, but this ordering was breaking down. • Clergy • Latin chiefly spoken, those who pray, purpose was to save everyone’s soul • Nobles • French chiefly spoken, those who fight, purpose was to protect—allow for all to work in peace—and provide justice • Commoners • English spoken, those who work, purpose was to feed and clothe all above themignatius joseph n estroga
  • 15. feudalism • The economic system of much of the Middle Ages (800-1100) • Commoners (peasants) lived on a feudal manor. The lord of the manor gave his vassals (the peasants) land to farm. • In return, the vassals received protection from roving bandits. Yet they were taxed and had to surrender a portion of their crops to the lord. • it was better to be a lord than a vassal! • Feudalism is important as it created ties of obedience and fostered a sense of loyalty between the vassals and their lord.A tenant (vassal) renews his oath of fealty to his lordignatius joseph n estroga
  • 16. Chivalry • A product of feudalism, chivalry was an idealized system of manners and morals • Restricted to nobility • The Medieval knight was bound to the chivalric code to be loyal to… • God • his lord • his lady • Chivalric ideals include... • benevolence • brotherly love • politeness • Sir Gawain is an example ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 17. Characteristics of Medieval Literature • Heroism • from both Germanic and Christian traditions, sometimes mingled • Presentations of idealized behavior • literature as moral- loyalty to king -Chivalry • Romance • Sir Gawain and the Green Knight • A narrative in prose or verse that tells of the adventures and heroic exploits of chivalric heroes • exploits of knights- often a supernatural element involved • Christian message • concern with salvation and the world to come • no interest in social change • until the late 14th century • Chaucer signals new thinking, up-ending social order ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 18. The High Middle Ages • These people wrote music, but they also wrote poetry. Cretien de Troyes, Walter von der Vogelweide, Wolfram von Eschenbach, and Marie de France are examples. a. Arthur and his knights, the Song of Roland, the Niebelungenlied, b.and literary material based on the lives of Alexander the Great and Charlemagne. c. The movement was important in promoting the idea of a code of chivalry.ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 19. The High Middle Ages d. During the High Middle Ages, other works became important, such as ancient Greek philosophy, translated into Latin from Arabic. This brought about a new interest in philosophy, religion, and science. e. Religion remained important. One example was the works of Thomas Aquinas. Another was Bonaventure's Life of Francis of Assisi. ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 20. The Late Middle Ages • This had truly great products with a. the Divine Comedy, by Dante, and b.The Canterbury Tales, by Geoffrey Chaucer. Interest in Arthurian legends also continued, and both Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur were products of this time. ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 21. •Influence of Aristotle, Ovid, and other Greco-Roman thinkers, as well as science and exploration. •Primarily texts for public performance (plays, masques) and some books of poetry. •William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, Ben Jonson, Francis Bacon, John Fletcher, Francis Beaumont.ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 22. • Renaissance- marks the transition from the medieval to the modern world; • It means rebirth or revival of letters; a historical period in which thinkers and scholars made attempts to get rid of those old feudalist ideas, to introduce new ideas that expressed the interest of the rising bourgeoisie, and to recover the purity of the early church from the corruption of the Roman Catholic Church. • Two features are striking of this movement: thirsting curiosity for the classical literature and the keen interest in the activities of humanity.ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 23. • Humanism-key-note of the Renaissance; emphasis on the dignity of human beings and the importance of the present life; belief in the right to enjoy the beauty of this life and the ability to perfect himself and to perform wonders. • Thomas Moore- Utopia • Francis Bacon- Of Studies ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 24. Francis Bacon (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626), an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, essayist, and author. He served both as Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England. After his death, he remained extremely influential through his works, especially as philosophical advocate and practitioner of the scientific method during the scientific revolution. Francis Bacon ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 25. Trivia What are the three important uses of studies according to Francis Bacon? • A. for happiness, for truth, and for knowledge • B. for delight, for ornament, and for ability • C. for judgment, for disposition, and for wisdom • D. for personal, social, and transcendental inclinations ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 26. • Drama---the highest glory of the English Renaissance with Christopher Marlowe, Shakespeare and Ben Jonson ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 27. Christopher Marlowe- • --the most gifted of the “university wits”, Doctor Faustus, blank verse first used in his drama. ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 28. *Shakespeare---his life, his works, his status *His life---born in 1564 in Stratford- on Avon, died in 1616 *His works---38 plays, 154 sonnets ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 29. TRIVIA What phrase appears on William Shakespeare’s gravestone? A. “May the great author rest in peace” B. “He wrote so much that man will take years to understand everything.” C. “He arrived on this earth with nothing. When he died, he left everything to us.” D. “…curst be he that moves my bones.”ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 30. Good friend, for Jesus' sake forbear To dig the dust enclosed here. Blessed be the man that spares these stones, And cursed be he that moves my bones. ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 31. V. The Restoration Period: (17th Century) ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 32. • Social background: the clash between the King and Parliament; the Civil War between 1642-1649; Charles I was executed in 1649; the declining of Cromwell’s Commonwealth and the compromise with the feudal remnants. ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 33. John Milton- • --a revolutionary poet, political both in his life and his art; Paradise Lost, Paradise Regained, Samson Agonistes ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 34. •John Bunyan---The Pilgrim’s Progress, a religious allegory, the spiritual pilgrimage of Christian •John Dryden---the most distinguished literary figure of the Restoration period; use of heroic couplet in his writing •*heroic couplet---two successive lines of verse, equal in length and with rhyme. ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 35. • Metaphysical school of poetry------break away from the convention; simple diction, common speech words and cadences, actual life imagery, argument with the poet’s beloved, with god, or with himself; John Donne and Andrew Marvell. • *John Donne---leading figure of the Metaphysical school of poetry, • *Marvel---“To his Coy Mistress” ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 36. England 1660-1785 America 1750-1800 •Reaction to the expansiveness of the Renaissance in the direction of order and restraint. •Developed in France (Moliere, Rousseau, Voltaire). ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 37. •Emphasized classical ideals of rationality and control (human nature is constant through time). •Art should reflect the universal commonality of human nature. (“All men are created equal.”) •Reason is emphasized as the highest faculty (Deism).ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 38. •Writing should be well structured, emotion should be controlled, and emphasize qualities like wit. •England: John Locke,, Alexander Pope (Essay on Man), Jonathon Swift (Gulliver’s Travels), Henry Fielding (Tom Jones), Daniel Defoe (Robinson Crusoe), Jane Austen (Sense and Sensibility, Emma, Pride and Prejudice). ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 39. DANIEL DEFOE: 1660-1731 was born in London, England. His real name was Daniel Foe, later changed his name to Daniel Defoe, wanting to sound more gentlemanly. He went into business, having given up an earlier intent on becoming a dissenting minister. He traveled often, selling such goods as wine and wool, but was rarely out of debt. He went bankrupt. He wrote his world famous novel “The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe”. ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 40. •America: Benjamin Franklin (Poor Richard’s Almanac, autobiography), Thomas Paine (“Common Sense”), Thomas Jefferson (“The Declaration of Independence”), James Madison (“The Constitution of the United States”). ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 41. England 1785-1830America 1800-1860 •Reaction against the scientific rationality of Neoclassicism and the Industrial Revolution. •Developed in Germany (Kant, Goethe). •Emphasized individuality, intuition, imagination, idealism, nature (as opposed to society & social order). ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 42. • *Romanticism---It designates a literary and philosophical theory which tends to see the individual as the very center of all life and all experience. • It also places the individual at the center of art, making literature most valuable as an expression of his or her unique feelings and particular attitudes; • Nature is not only the major source of poetic imagery, but also provides the dominant subject matter; Romantics also tend to be nationalistic.ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 43. Trivia •Who is the Father of Romanticism? ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 44. William Wordsworth ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 45. •Elevation of the common man (folklore, myth). •Mystery and the supernatural. •England: Robert Burns (“To a Mouse”), William Blake (Songs of Innocence, Songs of Experience), William Wordsworth (Lyrical Ballads, “Tintern Abbey,” “Intimations of Immortality,” “I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud”), Samuel Taylor Coleridge (“The Rime of the Ancient Mariner,” “Kubla Kahn”), Lord Byron (“Don Juan”), Percy Bysshe Shelley (“Ozymandias”), Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (Frankenstein), John Keats (“Ode on a Grecian Urn”), Sir Walter Scott (Ivanhoe). ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 46. America: • Washington Irving (“Rip Van Winkle,” “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow”), • Edgar Allan Poe (“The Raven,” Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque, “The Murders in the Rue Morgue,” “The Philosophy of Composition”), • James Fennimore Cooper (The Last of the Mohicans), • Herman Melville (Moby-Dick, Billy Budd), • Nathaniel Hawthorne (Twice-Told Tales, The Scarlet Letter), • William Cullen Bryant (“To a Waterfowl”), • Oliver Wendell Holmes (“The Chambered Nautilus”), • Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (“Paul Revere’s Ride”), • James Russell Lowell (“The First Snowfall”). ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 47. Trivia Who is the Father of Short Stories? ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 48. • American writer, known as a poet and critic but most famous as the first master of the short-story form, especially tales of the mystery. • The literary merits of Poe's writings have been debated since his death, but his works have remained popular and many major American and European writers have professed their artistic debt to him. • El Dorado videoignatius joseph n estroga
  • 49. WASHINGTON IRVING:1783-1859 was born to a wealthy New York family and received an excellent education. He was the first American writer to gain international attention. He began his writing career by creating satires about New York society. He later wrote about the Dutch influences upon the city in its early days. He attempted to give America a sense of a romantic past like that found in Europe. His most popular work by far was “The Sketch Book”, which contains two of his most beloved stories: “The legend of Sleepy Hollow: and “ Rip van Winkle”. ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 50. HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW: 1807-1882 was one of the most widely read American poets of the 19th century. From 1835 to 1854 he was Smith Professor of Modern Languages at Harvard. In 1884, 2 years after his death, he became the first American to be honoured with a bust in the Poets’ Corner of Westminster Abbey, London. He is best remembered for poems such as “The Song of Hiawatha” and “Paul Revere’s Ride”. ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 51. American Transcendentalism (Romantic philosophy) Named for the core belief that our spiritual nature transcends rationality and religious doctrine; thus, it is found in intuition. Developed in New England, influenced by Eastern philosophy. Pro-suffrage & abolitionist. • Ralph Waldo Emerson (Nature, “The American Scholar”), • Henry David Thoreau (Walden, “Civil Disobedience”), • Walt Whitman (Leaves of Grass).ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 52. Romantic Period video ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 53. •Named for the reign of Queen Victoria, Britain’s longest reigning monarch. •Period of stability and prosperity for Britain. •British society extremely class conscious. •Literature seen as a bridge between Romanticism and Modernism. •Generally emphasized realistic portrayals of common people, sometimes to promote social change. ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 54. • Charles Dickens (David Copperfield, Oliver Twist, Great Expectations), • George Eliot (Middlemarch), • Thomas Hardy (Tess of the D’Ubervilles), • Robert Louis Stevenson (The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde), • Rudyard Kipling (Jungle Book), • Lewis Carroll (Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland), • Charlotte Brontë (Jane Eyre), Emily Brontë (Wuthering Heights), • Alfred, Lord Tennyson (In Memoriam), • Elizabeth Barrett Browning (Sonnets from the Portuguese), • Robert Browning (“My Last Duchess”), Matthew Arnold (“Dover Beach”), Oscar Wilde (The Importance of Being Earnest). ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 55. CHARLES DICKENS: 1812-1870 was a novelist who provided Victorian England with one of its greatest champions of reform. Dickens used his novels to identify and address many problems of the nineteenth century, such as child abuse, unfair labour practices, injustices in the legal system, and weaknesses in education. Dickens had experienced many of these problems in his own childhood, and so on. He dedicated his life to brining about social reform. Some of his most popular novels include: “David Copperfield”, “Oliver Twist”, “A Tale of two Cities”, Christmas Carol and “Great Expectations”. ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 56. Trivia In Dicken’s A Christmas Carol, who were the visitors of Scrooge? ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 57. 1. Ghost of Christmas Past 2. Ghost of Christmas Present 3. Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 58. RUDYARD KIPLING: 1865-1936 was born in Bombay, India, but attended school in England. He was an English novelist, shot- story writer and poet. After completing his education, he returned to India where he worked as a newspaper reporter for several years. Many of Kipling’s stories and novels reflect his experiences in India and convey the importance of duty and unselfishness. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature. Kipling is most widely known for his works for children, especially the “Jungle Book”. ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 59. Alfred Tennyson(6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892) • was Poet Laureate of Great Britain and Ireland during much of Queen Victoria's reign and remains one of the most popular British poets. • Tennyson excelled at penning short lyrics, such as "Break, Break, Break", "The Charge of the Light Brigade", "Tears, Idle Tears" and "Crossing the Bar".ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 60. Elizabeth Barrett Browning(6 March 1806 – 29 June 1861) • was one of the most prominent English poets of the Victorian Era. Her poetry was widely popular in both Britain and the United States during her lifetime • At 15 Browning became ill, suffering from intense head and spinal pain for the rest of her life, rendering her frail. • During this time she contracted a disease, possibly tuberculosis, which weakened her further. • They had one son, Robert Barrett Browning, whom they called Pen. Towards the end of her life, her lung function worsened, and she died in Florence in 1861 ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 61. ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 62. •Reaction against Romantic values (Civil War). •Developed in France (Balzac, Flaubert, Zola). •Emphasized the commonplace and ordinary (as opposed to the romanticized individual). •Sought to depict life as it was, not idealized. •Mark Twain (The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn), •Ambrose Bierce (“An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge”), •William Dean Howells (A Modern Instance), •Theodore Dreiser (Sister Carrie). ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 63. MARK TWAIN: 1835-1910 was born in a small village of Florida. His real name was Samuel Cleme
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