ASTM D 653-97 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, And Contained Fluids

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Designation: D 653 – 97 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 653; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. These definitions were prepared jointly by the
  Designation: D 653 – 97 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids 1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 653; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of srcinal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon ( e ) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. These definitions were prepared jointly by the American Society of Civil Engineers and the American Society for Testing and Materials. INTRODUCTION A number of the definitions include symbols and indicate the units of measurement. The symbolsappear in italics immediately after the name of the term, followed by the unit in parentheses. Nosignificance should be placed on the order in which the symbols are presented where two or more aregiven for an individual term. The applicable units are indicated by capital letters, as follows:F—Force, such as pound-force, ton-force, newtonL—Length, such as inch, foot, centimetreT—Time, such as second, minuteD—DimensionlessPositive exponents designate multiples in the numerator. Negative exponents designate multiples inthe denominator. Degrees of angle are indicated as “degrees.”Expressing the units either in SI or the inch-pound system has been purposely omitted in order toleave the choice of the system and specific unit to the engineer and the particular application, forexample:FL −2 —may be expressed in pounds-force per square inch, kilopascals, tons per square foot, etc.LT −1 —may be expressed in feet per minute, centimetres per second, etc.Where synonymous terms are cross-referenced, the definition is usually included with the earlierterm alphabetically. Where this is not the case, the later term is the more significant.Definitions marked with (ISRM) are taken directly from the publication in Ref 42 and are includedfor the convenience of the user.For a list of ISRM symbols relating to soil and rock mechanics, refer to Appendix X1.A list of references used in the preparation of these definitions appears at the end.  AASHTO compaction —see compaction test . 88  A” Horizon —see horizon . abandonment —see decommissioning . D 5299abrasion —a rubbing and wearing away. (ISRM) abrasion —the mechanical wearing, grinding, scraping or rub-bing away (or down) of rock surfaces by friction or impact,or both. abrasive —any rock, mineral, or other substance that, owing toits superior hardness, toughness, consistency, or other prop-erties, is suitable for grinding, cutting, polishing, scouring,or similar use. abrasiveness —the property of a material to remove matterwhen scratching and grinding another material. (ISRM) absorbed water —water held mechanically in a soil or rock mass and having physical properties not substantially differ-ent from ordinary water at the same temperature andpressure. absorption —the assimilation of fluids into interstices. absorption loss —that part of transmitted energy (mechanical)lost due to dissipation or conversion into other forms (heat,etc.). accelerator —a material that increases the rate at whichchemical reactions would otherwise occur. activator —a material that causes a catalyst to begin itsfunction. active earth pressure —see earth pressure . active state of plastic equilibrium —see plastic equilibrium . additive —any material other than the basic components of agrout system. 1 This terminology is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D-18 on Soiland Rock and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D18.25 on Erosion andSediment Control Technology.Current edition approved August 10, 1997. Published October 1997. Originallypublished as D 653 – 42 T. Last previous edition D 653 – 96.This extensive list of definitions represents the joint efforts of SubcommitteeD18.93 on Terminology for Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids of ASTM CommitteeD-18 on Soil and Rock, and the Committee on Definitions and Standards of theGeotechnical Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers.These two groups function together as the Joint ASCE/ASTM Committee onNomenclature in Soil and Rock Mechanics. This list incorporates some terms fromASTM Definitions D 1707, Terms Relating to Soil Dynamics, which were discon-tinued in 1967. 1 Copyright © ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.  adhesion —shearing resistance between soil and another ma-terial under zero externally applied pressure. Symbol UnitUnit Adhesion c  a  FL −2 Total Adhesion C  a  F or FL −1 adhesion —shearing resistance between two unlike materialsunder zero externally applied pressure. admixture —a material other than water, aggregates, or cemen-titious material, used as a grout ingredient for cement-basedgrouts. adsorbed water —water in a soil or rock mass attracted to theparticle surfaces by physiochemical forces, having proper-ties that may differ from those of pore water at the sametemperature and pressure due to altered molecular ar-rangement; adsorbed water does not include water that ischemically combined within the clay minerals. adsorption —the attachment of water molecules or ions to thesurfaces of soil particles. advancing slope grouting —a method of grouting by whichthe front of a mass of grout is caused to move horizontallyby use of a suitable grout injection sequence. aeolian deposits —wind-deposited material such as dune sandsand loess deposits. aggregate — as a grouting material , relatively inert granularmineral material, such as sand, gravel, slag, crushed stone,etc. “Fine aggregate” is material that will pass a No. 4(6.4-mm) screen,“Coarse aggregate” is material that will not pass a No. 4(6.4-mm) screen.Aggregate is mixed with a cementing agent(such as Portland cement and water) to form a groutmaterial. agitator tank —a tank, usually vertical and with open top, withrotation paddles used to prevent segregation of grout aftermixing. air entry value —the applied suction at which water menisci of the porous segment of a suction sampler break down, and airenters. D 4696air-space ratio  , G a (D)—ratio of: ( 1 ) volume of water that canbe drained from a saturated soil or rock under the action of force of gravity, to ( 2 ) total volume of voids. air-void ratio, G v (D)—the ratio of: ( 1 ) the volume of airspace, to ( 2 ) the total volume of voids in a soil or rock mass. alkali aggregate reaction —a chemical reaction betweenNa 2 O and K 2 O in the cement and certain silicate minerals inthe cement and certain silicate minerals in the aggregate,which causes expansion resulting in weakening and crackingof Portland cement grout. See reactive aggregate . allowable bearing value (allowable soil pressure), q a  , p a (FL −2 )—the maximum pressure that can be permitted onfoundation soil, giving consideration to all pertinent factors,with adequate safety against rupture of the soil mass ormovement of the foundation of such magnitude that thestructure is impaired. allowable pile bearing load, Q a  , P a (F)—the maximum loadthat can be permitted on a pile with adequate safety againstmovement of such magnitude that the structure is endan-gered. alluvium —soil, the constituents of which have been trans-ported in suspension by flowing water and subsequentlydeposited by sedimentation. amplification factor —ratio of dynamic to static displacement. amorphous peat  —see sapric peat . angle of external friction (angle of wall friction), d (degrees)—angle between the abscissa and the tangent of thecurve representing the relationship of shearing resistance tonormal stress acting between soil and surface of anothermaterial. angle of friction (angle of friction between solid bodies), f s (degrees)—angle whose tangent is the ratio between themaximum value of shear stress that resists slippage betweentwo solid bodies at rest with respect to each other, and thenormal stress across the contact surfaces. angle of internal friction (angle of shear resistance), f (degrees)—angle between the axis of normal stress and thetangent to the Mohr envelope at a point representing a givenfailure-stress condition for solid material. angle of obliquity, a , b , f , C (degrees)—the angle betweenthe direction of the resultant stress or force acting on a givenplane and the normal to that plane. angle of repose, a (degrees)—angle between the horizontaland the maximum slope that a soil assumes through naturalprocesses. For dry granular soils the effect of the height of slope is negligible; for cohesive soils the effect of height of slope is so great that the angle of repose is meaningless. angle of shear resistance —see angle of internal friction . angle of wall friction —see angle of external friction . angular aggregate —aggregate, the particles of which possesswell-defined edges formed at the intersection of roughlyplanar faces. anisotropic mass —a mass having different properties in dif-ferent directions at any given point. anisotropy —having different properties in different directions.(ISRM) annual space; annulus —the space between two concentrictubes or casings, or between the casing and the boreholewall. This would include the space(s) between multiplestrings of tubing/casings in a borehole installed eitherconcentrically or multi-cased adjacent to each other. D 5092 apparent cohesion —see cohesion . aquiclude —a relatively impervious formation capable of ab-sorbing water slowly but will not transmit it fast enough tofurnish an appreciable supply for a well or spring. aquifer —a geologic formation, group of formations, of part of a formation that is saturated and is capable of providing asignificant quantity of water. D 5092aquifer, confined —an aquifer bounded above and below byconfining beds and in which the static head is above the topof the aquifer. D 4050, D 4104, D 4105, D 4106, D 5269aquifer, unconfined —an aquifer that has a water table. D 4043, D 4105, D 4106aquitard —a confining bed that retards but does not prevent theflow of water to or from an adjacent aquifer; a leakyconfining bed. arching —the transfer of stress from a yielding part of a soil or D 653 2  rock mass to adjoining less-yielding or restrained parts of themass. area grouting —grouting a shallow zone in a particular areautilizing holes arranged in a pattern or grid. D ISCUSSION —This type of grouting is sometimes referred to asblanket or consolidation grouting. area of influence of a well, a (L 2 )—area surrounding a wellwithin which the piezometric surface has been lowered whenpumping has produced the maximum steady rate of flow. area ratio of a sampling spoon, sampler, or sampling tube,  A r  (D)—the area ratio is an indication of the volume of soildisplaced by the sampling spoon (tube), calculated as fol-lows:  A r  5 @~  D e 2 2 D i 2  /   D i 2 # 3 100 (1) where:  D e 5 maximum external diameter of the samplingspoon, and  D i 5 minimum internal diameter of the sampling spoonat the cutting edge. armor —the artificial surfacing of bed, banks, shore, or em-bankment to resist erosion or scour. armor stone —(generally one ton to three tons in weight) stoneresulting from blasting, cutting, or by other methods toobtain rock heavy enough to require handling two individualpieces by mechanical means. ash content —the percentage by dry weight of material remain-ing after an oven dry organic soil or peat is burned by aprescribed method. assessment monitoring —an investigative monitoring pro-gram that is initiated after the presence of a contaminant inground water has been detected. The objective of thisprogram is to determine the concentration of constituentsthat have contaminated the ground water and to quantify therate and extent of migration of these constituents. D 5092ASTM cement types —Portland cements meeting the require-ments of Specifications C 150. Cement types have slightlydifferent formulations that result in various characteristicswhich address different construction conditions and differentphysical and chemical environments. They are as follows: Type I (Portland) —a general-purpose construction cementwith no special properties. D 5092Type II (Portland) —a construction cement that is moderatelyresistant to sulfates and generates a lower head of hydrationat a slower rate than Type I D 5092Type III (Portland: high early strength) —a constructioncement that produces a high early strength. This cementreduces the curing time required when used in cold environ-ments, and produces a higher head of hydration than Type I. D 5092Type IV (Portland) —a construction cement that produces alow head of hydration (lower than Types I and II) anddevelops strength at a slower rate. D 5092Type V (Portland) —a construction cement that is a highsulfate resistant formulation. Used when there is severesulfate action from soils and ground water. attapulgite clay —a chain-lattice clay mineral. The term alsoapplies to a group of clay materials that are lightweight,tough, matted, and fibrous. attenuation —reduction of amplitude with time or distance. 88  B” horizon —see horizon . average interstitial velocity —see velocity, average intersti-tial . backpack grouting —the filling with grout of the annularspace between a permanent tunnel lining and the surround-ing formation. D ISCUSSION —Same as crown grouting and backfill grouting. back-packing —any material (usually granular) that is used tofill the empty space between the lagging and the rock surface. (ISRM) baffle —a pier, weir, sill, fence, wall, or mound built on the bedof a stream to parry, deflect, check, or regulate the flow or tofloat on the surface to dampen the wave action. bailer —a hollow tubular receptacle used to facilitate with-drawal of fluid from a well or borehole. D 5092ballast —materials used to provide stability to a buoyant object(such as casing within a borehole filled with water). D 5092barometric efficiency —the ratio of the change in depth towater in a well to the inverse of water-level change inbarometric pressure, expressed in length of water. D 4043base — in grouting , main component in a grout system. base course (base) —a layer of specified or selected material of planned thickness constructed on the subgrade or subbase forthe purpose of serving one or more functions such asdistributing load, providing drainage, minimizing frost ac-tion, etc. base exchange —the physicochemical process whereby onespecies of ions adsorbed on soil particles is replaced byanother species. batch — in grouting , quantity of grout mixed at one time. batch method — in grouting , a quantity of grout materials aremixed or catalyzed at one time prior to injection. batch mixer — in grouting , a machine that mixes batches of grout, in contrast to a continuous mixer. bearing capacity —see ultimate bearing capacity . bearing capacity (of a pile), Q  p  , P  p (F)—the load per pilerequired to produce a condition of failure. bedding —applies to rocks resulting from consolidation of sediments and exhibiting surfaces of separation (beddingplanes) between layers of the same or different materials,that is, shale, siltstone, sandstone, limestone, etc. (ISRM) bedding —collective term signifying the existence of layers of beds. Planes or other surfaces dividing sedimentary rocks of the same or different lithology. bedrock —the more or less continuous body of rock whichunderlies the overburden soils. (ISRM) bedrock (ledge) —rock of relatively great thickness and extentin its native location. bench —( 1 ) the unexcavated rock having a nearly horizontalsurface which remains after a top heading has been exca-vated, or ( 2 ) step in a slope; formed by a horizontal surfaceand a surface inclined at a steeper angle than that of theentire slope. (ISRM) bending —process of deformation normal to the axis of anelongated structural member when a moment is applied D 653 3  normal to its long axis. (ISRM) bentonitic clay —a clay with a high content of the mineralmontmorillonite, usually characterized by high swelling onwetting. berm —a shelf that breaks the continuity of a slope. biaxial compression —compression caused by the applicationof normal stresses in two perpendicular directions. (ISRM) biaxial state of stress —state of stress in which one of the threeprincipal stresses is zero. (ISRM) binder (soil binder) —portion of soil passing No. 40 (425-µm)U.S. standard sieve, binder —anything that causes cohesion in loosely assembledsubstances, such as clay or cement. bit —any device that may be attached to or is an integral partof a drill string and is used as a cutting tool to bore into orpenetrate rock or other materials. blaine fineness —the fineness of powdered materials, such ascement and pozzolans, expressed as surface area usually insquare centimetres per gram. blanket grouting —a method in which relatively closelyspaced shallow holes are drilled and grouted on a gridpattern over an area, for the purpose of making the upperportions of the bedrock stronger and less pervious. blastibility —index value of the resistance of a rock formationto blasting. (ISRM) blasting cap (detonator, initiator) —a small tube containing aflashing mixture for firing explosives. (ISRM) bleeding — in grouting , the autogeneous flow of mixing waterwithin, or its emergence from, newly placed grout caused bythe settlement of the solid materials within the mass. bleeding rate — in grouting , the rate at which water is releasedfrom grout by bleeding. blocking —wood blocks placed between the excavated surfaceof a tunnel or shaft and the main bracing system. (ISRM) blow-in —the inflow of ground water and unconsolidatedmaterial into a borehole or casing caused by differentialhydraulic heads; that is, caused by the presence of a greaterhydraulic head outside of a borehole/casing than inside. D 5092blowout —a sudden or violent uncontrolled escape of fluids orgas, or both, from a borehole. D 5299body force —a force such as gravity whose effect is distributedthroughout a material body by direct action on each elemen-tary part of the body independent of the others. (ISRM) bog —a peat covered area with a high water table and a surfacedominated by a carpet of mosses, chiefly sphagnum. It isgenerally nutrient poor and acidic. It may be treed ortreeless. bond strength — in grouting , resistance to separation of setgrout from other materials with which it is in contact; acollective expression for all forces such as adhesion, friction,and longitudinal shear. borehole —a hole of circular cross-section made in soil or rock. D ISCUSSION —normally, a borehole is advanced using an auger, a drill,or casing with or without drilling fluid. D 4750borehole log —the record of geologic units penetrated, drillingprogress, depth, water level, sample recovery, volumes andtypes of materials used, and other significant facts regardingthe drilling of an exploratory borehole or well. D 5092borehole television log —a borehole or well video recordproduced by lowering a television camera into the boreholeor well. This record is useful in visually observing downholeconditions such as collapsed casing or a blocked screen. bottom charge —concentrated explosive charge at the bottomof a blast hole. (ISRM) boulder clay —a geological term used to designate glacial driftthat has not been subjected to the sorting action of water andtherefore contains particles from boulders to clay sizes. boulders —a rock fragment, usually rounded by weathering orabrasion, with an average dimension of 12 in. (305 mm) ormore. breakwater stone —(generally three tons to twenty tons inweight) stone resulting from blasting, cutting, or othermeans to obtain rock heavy enough to require handlingindividual pieces by mechanical means. bridge —an obstruction within the annulus which may preventcirculation or proper emplacement of annular materials. D 5092bubbling pressure —the applied air pressure at which watermenisci of the porous segment of a suction sampler break down, and air exists. D 4696buckling —a bulge, bend, bow, kink, or wavy conditionproduced in sheets, plates, columns, or beams by compres-sive stresses. bulb of pressure —see pressure bulb . bulk density, r —the mass of a quantity of a bulk solid dividedby its total volume. bulk solid —an assembly of solid particles handled in suffi-cient quantities that its characteristics can be described bythe properties of the mass of particles rather than thecharacteristics of each individual particle. May also bereferred to as granular material, particulate solid or powder.Examples are sugar, flour, ore, and coal. bulkhead —a steep or vertical structure supporting natural orartificial embankment. bulking —the increase in volume of a material due to manipu-lation. Rock bulks upon being excavated; damp sand bulks if loosely deposited, as by dumping, because the apparentcohesion prevents movement of the soil particles to form areduced volume. bunker — synonym for bin , but sometimes understood asbeing a bin without any or only a samll vertical part at thetop of the hopper. buoyant unit weight  ( submerged unit weight  )—see unitweight . burden — in an explosive blasting, the distance between thecharge and the free face of the material to be blasted. burden —distance between charge and free surface in directionof throw. (ISRM) 88 C” Horizon —see horizon . California bearing ratio, CBR (D)—the ratio of: ( 1 ) the forceper unit area required to penetrate a soil mass with a3-in. 2 (19-cm) 2 circular piston (approximately 2-in. (51-mm)diameter) at the rate of 0.05 in. (1.3 mm)/min, to ( 2 ) that D 653 4
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