Beckman - Gilgamesh in Hatti

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OFFPRINT FROM Hittite Studies in Honor of Harry A. HofSner Jr. on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday Edited by GARY BECKMAN RICHARD BEAL and GREGORY MCMAHON EISENBRAUNS WINONA LAKE, INDIANA 2003 Gilgnnzesh in Hatri GARY BECKMAN Af~n Arbor Benno Landsberger exaggerated only a little when he referred to the story of Gilgamesh as Mesopotamia's Nationalep~s, ~ for it cannot be denied that the cycle of tales surrounding this Sumerian ruler was well known in Babylonia and Assyria. Terra cotta
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  OFFPRINT FROM Hittite Studies in Honor of Harry A. HofSner Jr. on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday Edited by GARYBECKMANRICHARD EAL and GREGORYMCMAHON EISENBRAUNS WINONA LAKE, INDIANA 2003  Gilgnnzesh in Hatri GARY ECKMAN Af~n rbor Benno Landsberger exaggerated only a little when he referred to the storyof Gilgamesh as Mesopotamia's Nationalep~s, ~or it cannot be denied thatthe cycle of tales surrounding this Sumerian ruler was well known in Babylo-nia and Assyria. Terra cotta plaques and seal designs depicting the killing ofthe monstrous Huwawa by Gilgamesh and his comrade Enkidu are attestedfrom the Old Babylonian period through Achaemenid times.= Knowledge ofGilgamesh also reached the Hittite capital of HattuSa, as demonstrated by therecovery at RoBarkoy of two Akkadian versions of his adventures. Hurrianand Hittite translations have also turned up. But there is absolutely no evi-dence that the hero of Uruk was familiar to the Hittite in the street. No repre-sentations of Gilgamesh are to be found in the corpus of Hittite art,3 nor arethere allusions to him or his exploits in texts outside of the literary productsjusl men~ioned.~It seems. therefore. that the Gilgamesh tradition was imported to UattuSasolely for use in scribal instruction.' although il cannot be absolutely excludedthat the Hittite-language text was read aloud at court for the entertainment of -- I Einleitnng in das Gilgarnei-Epos, in Gtfx.omd ei ra IPgmde. ed. P. Garelli (Paris:Lihrairie C. Klmcksieck. 1960). 31 2. For derails see W. G. t.ambrrt, Gilgamesh in Lilrralule and An. The Second md FirstMiilcnnia, inMonrrers ond Demons, ed. A. Faikas eta1 (Mainz: Philipp van Zabnn. 1987). 37-52; and A. Green, Myths in hfesopotarnian Art:' in Sameriorr Gods ond Their Rrprrse,zralir,n~.cil. I. L. Finkrl rt ill. (Groningen: Sryx. 1997). 137-39. 3. Note oltly a bar relief Rom Tell Halal illustrati~tghe atrsck on ljuwawa (pictured byLltmhcrl, Gilgamesh in Literature:' figure 1.51, which is, nl course, a product uf the Neo- Hirlile pcriod.4. Thc menrion uf an ..(omen) uf Gilgamesh ($[A '~GIIS.GIM.MAS) n KBo 13.34 ni' 13' (CTH540; rtl. K. K. Rirmschneider,SrEo79, 26-27) is nuexception, since this text is a rra~tslation of a Mesopotamian binh omen collection.5. See A. Kammrnhnher, GilgsmeS-Epos. Die hethirischen und hurririscheu (hurriscbenl GilgomcbUberlieferu~~ge~~:' lndlerr Lilemrur ltrlkn,~ (Zurich:Kiudler. 1967). 816; itnd cf. my Meaopolitminns and Mesopotamian Learning a1 lJattuSn:'.fCS 35 (1983Y97-114.  38 Gar) Beckrnan the king and his associate^.^ Nonetheless, as has long been recognized,' thematerial from Bogazkoy is of particular importance to modern scholars in reconstructing the epic and analyzing its development, since it documents a period in the history of the narrative's progressive restructuring and elahoru-lion for which very few textual witnesses have yet been recovered from Mes-opotamia itself.%nd il is this very Middle Babylonian or Kassite period towhich scholarly consensus assigns the composition of the final. ~anonical, ~version of the epic. U I have re-edited all of the Gilgamesh material from Bogazkoy in the Akkadian. Hittite, and Hurrian languages, an undertakirig which grew out of a collahorative project with Benjamin Foster and Douglas Frayne to pro- duce a new and comprehensive translation of all Gilgamesh texts. I have succeeded in hringing further order to the chaos presented hy the Hittite-language fragments,I2 having identified several new joins and duplicates, and having placed all hut nine or ten pieces in their proper position withinthe narrative. As is well known, the tradition surrounding the figure of Gilgmesh14goeshack to the Early Dynast~c 1 period (ca. 270G2500 B.c.E.). when a man ofthis name may actually have ruled as the fifth king of the Sumerian King6. Hurry Hoffnerpoints out to me thill ihr heroic ilctiritics carried ont by the hem would bemost ~ppropnate hematically roan il~ldiencrmad? np of a warrio~monarch and his military en- louragr. Cf. ores 54 and 84 below. 7. Text from the Hittite version ha? lradiriunillly been used to fill a gap in Table1 V of themelve-Tahlet-Version. See A. Schott, Dor Gtl~nmmch~fpor, rgsnzt und teilweisr neu gestaltet von Wolfram von Soden (Sruttptt: Philipp Reclan), 1q5R). 4647, and the translalinn by E. A.Speiser in ANET', 82, ond hl. Gallery Kovacs. The EpicofGilpuntrsh (Stanford: Slanitlrd Llnivrr-sily Press, 1985). 40-47.8. Thi~s not an uncommon ailaillion. See 1. S. Cooper, Bilin~ouls rum BoghazMi. I, ZA hl (1972): 1-2.9. I use lhia term laarrly here. On the question of applying thii concept lo Meaopolamian lil- rrwg tfxts. see W. W Hilllo, Assy~olopy nd the Canon, The Amenrun Schniur 59 (1990): 105- ~ -~ 8. Cf. F. Rachberg-Hallon, Canonicily in Cllneiform Texlr. lCS 36 (1984): 133-50.I0 W, yon Soden, Das Ploblem drr zritlichen tinordnung aklrildischer 1.iteraturwerke. MnOG 85 (1953): 21. I I. The Epic of Gil~arnruh, ranslaled and edited by Benjamin R. Foster. Nortun Crilicill Edikrims (New York: W. W. Nonon, 2001). Foster hils lranslated all Akkadian-language malrrial andFrilyne the Sumenan poems.12. See the pionee~ingworka of J. Friedrich. Die hethitischen Bmckstiicke dcs CiilgameS-Epoa, ZA 39 11930): 1-32, and H. Otten, Die rrste Tafel des hethitisrhen C~lgnmrsch~Epos, IM8 (1958): 93125 have also consulted with profil (he lranslireralinn by E. Laroche, Telcxtesmythologiqner hiuiler en lril~nscriplion. 1. Mythologie &tr;mgPrr. RHA 82 (19h8): 121-38.I3 For details. srr my fonhcoming edition, The Hiriiir Gilgrmmr.$h. 14. In peurrnl see I. H. Tigay, The Evolrrrion qfihr Gilgumerh Epic (Philadelphia: University 01' Pennsylvania Press, 19621.  List's first dynasty of UN~.'~ lready in the middle of the third millennium(Fara period) Gilgamesh makes his appearance in a list of gods.16 and he re-ceived olferings in pre-Sargonic Lagashl' and under the Ur 111 state.IRTales featuring Gilgamesh are first known from early in the second millen-nium, the so-called lsin-Larsa period. These Sumerian texts-found for themost part at the old religious center of Nippur-are almost certainly copies ofcompositions created at the court of the Ur Ill kings (twenty-tirst century B.c.E.), monarchs who claimed Gilgmesh as their semi-divine forbear. Atthis stage, the tradition-so far as known to usdonsisted of five independentpoems centering on the deeds of our hero. lY Some of the events presented herewere to become the building blocks of the later unified epic, while otherswould simply disappear.The earliest Akkadian texts telling Gilgamesh's story were composed inOld Bahylonian times, perhaps by scribes in the serviceof Rim-Sin I of Larsa,or in that of Hammurapi and Samsuiluna of Babylon. (See the key to Chart 1for a list of the six known relevant manuscripts dating to this period.20) Un-fortunately. most of these tablets are in very poor condition indeed, but thehest-preserved witness (that of the Pennsylvania and Yale Tablets) makesit clear enough that the process of integrating the story elements into a singlecoherent narrative had already begun in this period.The published Middle Bahylonian sources from sites other than Bogazkoyare in even worse condition than the Old Babylonian texts. (See the key toChart andnote that while the discovery of the bracketed text from Ugarit 15. T acobsen, The Sunrerion Kinji Lisr (Chicago: The Onenlill Institute, 1939). 88-89, iii17-18.16. See W. G. Lmben. GilgameSin Rcligiuua, Historical and Omen Tcrla and [he Hiamririly of Ciilprnei:' in Giignr,ru~ersagendc. 48.17. 4. alkenrtein, Gilg~meH:' KIA 3 (1957-71): 759.18. W G. Lambeo, Gilgarnri in Religious. Hirloclcal and Omen Texts:' 17-48.19. See Lhe translations by A. George. Thr Epic of Giigdmesh (New York: Barnes di Noble.1999). 141-208.20. Pdrtieular nfonnalivn on Lhe phce co publieation of Lheae Old Babylonian qources is given by J. Ticay, Ei,oiuriw,. 305-6. Nos. 5 and hare presented hy A. George. Giljiamesh. 115-18, and Nu 6 has now rcceired a full edition by A. Cdvigneaur and J. Rengcr. Ein alrhahy~lonischer Gilgarnei~Text aus Nippur, in Wirdorn, Godr urcd Lirernrure. Sludirs in Ass~rioiugyin Ho,rnar of W. G. Lanrberr. ed. A. R. George aud 1. L. Finkrl (Winnna Lake: Eirrnbrauns,20001, YILlU3. In the Fame anniversary vc,lurrle. A. Weslenholz provides new cvpier of thePennsylrania Tahlrt and UM 29-13-570. as well us of the MB sources ?N-T79. UET6. 394.snd the Megiddo rahtet. See A. Wrsteuholz and II. Koch-Westenholr, Enkidu-the Noble Savage? 415-5121. See once again 1. Tigay. E~~olurlon, 054. N. Veldhuia his treated the Nippur srhuol textsin a review of S. Parpola, 7he 9rrrtbrdBnhylr,,ri0,1 Epic ofGiljiamesh, SAACT 1, BiOr.16 (1999):389-90 (2N-T79 md ?N175), and in Kassitc Exerciser: Literary and I-exical Extrilers:' JCS 52(2000): 72 (CBS 14167 and UM 29-Ih~hUh, oth of which are too lrvgmenrary tu be placed
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