Brain Organization, or, why everyone should have some neuroanatomy

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Brain Organization, or, why everyone should have some neuroanatomy. Psychology 2606. Introduction. Anatomy vs. physiology Brain is organized in, at best, a semi random pattern Some of the names are confusing Substantia negra Zona inserta Some make a teeny bit of sense Hippocampus
Brain Organization, or, why everyone should have some neuroanatomyPsychology 2606Introduction
  • Anatomy vs. physiology
  • Brain is organized in, at best, a semi random pattern
  • Some of the names are confusing
  • Substantia negra
  • Zona inserta
  • Some make a teeny bit of sense
  • Hippocampus
  • amygdila
  • AnteriorCaudalDorsalFrontalInferiorLateralMedialPosteriorRostralSagittalSuperiorVentraldorsalA few key termsThe outside has rich chocolate cooating
  • OK, it isn’t chocolate, but it is almost as tasty!
  • The meninges
  • Within which we find the CSF
  • Cerebrum
  • Cerebellum
  • Sulci and gyri
  • Brainstem
  • Cranial nerves
  • Lots of arteries and veins
  • Brain uses 25 percent of the glucose in your system and about 75 percent of your Oxygen
  • So blood is pretty important
  • When blood supply is cut off to the brain you get a stroke
  • Some gross internal features
  • Ventricles
  • What do they do?
  • Good question
  • White matter
  • Grey matter
  • Internal Organization
  • Four lobes
  • Frontal
  • Parietal
  • Temporal
  • Occipital
  • In general they have function but remember this is in general
  • Some important Subcortical structures
  • Hippocampus
  • Amygdila
  • Thalamus
  • Hypothalamus
  • Nucleus accumbens
  • Medula
  • Brain is divided into two hemispheres
  • Connected via the corpus collosum
  • Not all animals have a cc
  • Many birds have only a small bundle of connections that allow their two hemispheres to communicate
  • Allows cool research to be donw
  • Nicky Clayton’s work on food storing birds
  • Neurons
  • Glial cells
  • Axons and dendrites
  • A whole bunch of neurons connected is called a tract or a nerve, depending on where it is
  • CNS PNS et al
  • The division of the nervous system into say the CNS and the PNS is really about anatomy
  • Nothing wrong with this, but the distinction is not as much about physiology
  • Physiologically we can talk about the cranial nervous system and the spinal nervous system
  • Cranial stuff
  • Twelve sets of two
  • Control inputs and outputs from stuff in the head
  • The Brainstem gets inputs from the senses
  • Outputs to the rest of the body (so not the head in other words)
  • You can divide it into the hindbrain, midbrain and diencephalon
  • Hindbrain
  • Fine movements
  • Balance
  • Cerebellum too
  • Key for fine movement
  • May be important in learning
  • Quick movements too
  • Reticular formation
  • Sleep, wakefulness
  • Connections to cortex, wake you up
  • midbrain
  • Tectum
  • Superior colliculus does vision
  • Inferior colliculus does audition
  • Just below the tectum is the tegmentum, also important in movement
  • Diencephalon
  • Hypothalamus
  • Hunger
  • Thirst
  • Sex
  • thermoregulation
  • Thalamus
  • Sensory switchboard
  • The Forebrain
  • This is where those lobes are
  • Collectively known as the Cortex
  • Limbic cortex or old cortex
  • Just below the neocortex
  • Basal ganglia
  • Very important in movement
  • Substantia negra is there
  • Parkinson’s
  • Limbic system
  • HP
  • Amygdala
  • Emotion?
  • Nucleus accumbens
  • Runs on dopamine
  • Olfactory bulb
  • Ours is itty bitty
  • Spinal nervous system
  • Spinal column
  • Nerves running to and from the spinal column that control body and receive input
  • Dermatomes
  • Inside the spinal column
  • Dorsal root
  • From sensory receptor
  • Ventral root
  • To movement
  • Bell-Megendie Law
  • Internal or Autonomic system
  • Sympathetic
  • Arousal
  • Parasympathetic
  • Cool down
  • A lot of what goes on in this system is hormonal
  • Principles of nervous system organization
  • Sequence is input -> integrate -> Output
  • Functional division between sensory and motor systems
  • Inputs and outputs are crossed
  • Symmetry and asymmetry
  • Excitation and inhibition
  • Multiple levels of function
  • Parallel and hierarchical (Hughlings Jackson)
  • Localized and distributed
  • Related Search
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