Chapter 6

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Chapter 6. Section 4: Other Senses. Taste: Savory Sensations. Taste occurs because chemicals stimulate thousands of receptors in the mouth, primarily on the tongue, but also in the throat, cheeks, & roof of mouth. Papillae: Knoblike elevations on the tongue, containing the taste buds.
Transcript
Chapter 6Section 4: Other SensesTaste: Savory Sensations
  • Taste occurs because chemicals stimulate thousands of receptors in the mouth, primarily on the tongue, but also in the throat, cheeks, & roof of mouth
  • Papillae: Knoblike elevations on the tongue, containing the taste budsActual receptors for taste are inside the taste buds
  • Cells send tiny fibers out through an opening in the bud
  • Receptor cells are replaced by new cells every ten days
  • After 40, total number of taste buds declines
  • Bitterness & sourness help us identify foods that are rancid or poisonous
  • Sweetness helps us identify foods that are healthful or rich in calories
  • Salt is necessary for all bodily functions
  • Basic tastes can be perceived at any spot on the tongue
  • Center has no taste buds
  • Taste differences are genetic, a matter of culture & learning
  • Attractiveness of a food can also be affected by its color, temperature, texture, & odor
  • Smell: The Sense of Scents
  • Smell or olfaction
  • Airborne chemical molecules enter the nose & circulate through the nasal cavity.
  • Vapors can also enter through the mouth & pass into nasal cavity.
  • Sniff out dangers by smelling smoke, food spoilage, & poisonous gases
  • Loss can be caused by infection, disease, injury, or smoking
  • Red bars show the people who could identify a substance dropped on the tongue when they were able to smell it
  • Blue bars show the people who could identify the substance when they were not able to smell it
  • Senses of the Skin
  • Protects our innards, helps identify objects, establish intimacy with others, gives us a sense of ourselves as a distinct from the environment
  • Basic senses- touch/pressure, warmth, cold, & pain
  • Tickle, itch, & burning
  • The Mystery of Pain
  • When the stimulus producing it is removed, the sensation may continue, sometimes for years
  • Chronic pain disrupts lives, puts stress on the body, & causes depression, & despair
  • The Gate Control Theory of Pain
  • Experience of pain depends (in part) on whether the pain impulse gets past neurological “gate” in the spinal cord & thus reaches the brain.
  • Brain influences the gate
  • Thoughts & feelings can influence our reactions to pain
  • Updating the Gate Control Theory
  • Doesn’t explain phantom pain
  • Brain not only responds to incoming signals from sensory nerves but is also capable of generating pain entirely on its own
  • A network of neurons in the brain gives us a sense of our own bodies & body parts
  • Neuromatrix Theory of Pain
  • Theory that the matrix of neurons in the brain is capable of generating pain (& other sensations) in the absence of signals from sensory nerves
  • The Environment Within
  • Kinesthesis: The sense of body position and movement of body parts
  • Information provided by pain & pressure receptors located in muscles, joints, & tendons
  • Equilibrium: The sense of balance
  • Gives us information about our bodies as a whole
  • Relies on three semicircular canals in the inner ear
  • Tubes are filled with fluid that moves & presses on hair like receptors whenever the head rotates
  • Receptors intake messages that travel through a part of the auditory nerve not involved in hearing
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