City States of Greece

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City States of Greece. Geography of Greece. Peninsula into the Mediterranean Sea Made up of over 4000 islands Surrounded by three seas Mediterranean Sea Ionian Sea Aegean Sea The Greeks became great sailors. The Land of Greece. Rugged mountains, deep valleys
City States of GreeceGeography of Greece
  • Peninsula into the Mediterranean Sea
  • Made up of over 4000 islands
  • Surrounded by three seas
  • Mediterranean Sea
  • Ionian Sea
  • Aegean Sea
  • The Greeks became great sailors
  • The Land of Greece
  • Rugged mountains, deep valleys
  • Terrain shaped politics of Grecians
  • Divided cities from each other (physical independence)
  • Led to many different forms of government
  • Made communication, overland trade difficult
  • Only 16-18% of land was good for farming
  • Like the Minoans, trade was lifeblood!
  • Central Greece – very ruggedterrain, not good for agricultureRise of City States
  • Polis were ind. cities
  • Made their own FP
  • Acropolis – fortified hill
  • Terrain was very difficult (no roads)
  • Acropolis ofAthensPolitical Structures of Polis“Different strokes for different folks”
  • Tyranny: one person w/ absolute power to rule
  • Monarchy / Aristocracy: king w/ advisor nobles
  • Oligarchy: small group rules
  • Democracy: people rule
  • Armies of Greece
  • Iron weapons were cheap; very common, owned by everyone
  • Led to the rise of the citizen-soldier
  • Called “hoplite”
  • Armed with long (6-8’) spear (no other weapon)
  • Armored with breast plate, helmet, shield
  • Fought together with friends from young age (lower chance to run away)
  • Phalanx: Fact . . .
  • Group of hoplites fighting in formation
  • Formation essentially a solid block of spears, men
  • Each man protected the man to his left with his shield
  • Formations tended to drift to the right
  • Battles between phalanxes became shoving matches
  • Relatively few casualties
  • Phalanx: . . . and FictionThe PhalanxThe 300 phalanxThe City State Sparta
  • Located in Peloponnese peninsula, made up of five villages
  • Dominated neighboring Messenans, enslaving them
  • Around 600 BC, they revolted
  • Spartans almost defeated
  • Made radical changes to government, way of life
  • Purpose: rule conquered people
  • State was supreme, made all decisions for citizens
  • Territory of SpartaThe City State Sparta
  • Class structure: two classes
  • Helots = Messenians
  • Conquered people were property of state
  • Subject to cruel, brutal treatment by all
  • Spartans (“Spartiates”)
  • Any resident of original five villages who want through agoge
  • Life was dedicated to protecting the state
  • The City State Sparta
  • Government
  • Two kings (hereditary rulers; agoge; military, political, religious leaders
  • Five Ephors
  • Any spartiate
  • Responsible for best interests of state
  • Indep. of king, senate, assembly (beat king)
  • Council of Elders (Senate)
  • 28 spartiates, 60+ years
  • Day to day decisions
  • Assembly
  • All spartiates, 18+
  • Vote yes or no only
  • 2 SpartanKingsEphors(Overseers)Council of Elders(Senate)Assembly of SpartiatesNon Spartans (Periokoi, Helots) – no political rightsEducation (“Agoge”)Male education dedicated to developing physical, mental, moral, social SpartanBrutal training lasted 13 yearsLeft home at age 7 to begin trainingTaught how to fight, steal, live off land, endure terrible hardship They were simply the best in GreeceSpartiates = 9000 out of 225,000 pop.Women were t treated = to menThe City State SpartaThe City State Athens
  • Located on mainland, near coast
  • Oldest continuously inhabited city in Europe (3000+ years)
  • Originally a Mycenae hill fort that survived Dark Ages
  • City was a port, only 8 km from sea
  • “Long Wall” fortification betweenAthens, Piraeus – port of AthensCity State of Athens
  • Frequent clashes between aristocrats and poor
  • Led to rise of the occasional peasant revolt, put down harshly by king, nobles
  • Developed into an oligarchy (landowning nobles replaced king)
  • The City State Athens
  • Written code of law around 621 BC
  • Unfair law written by Draco (“Draconian”)
  • Aristocrats favored
  • Most punishments = death
  • People reject, threaten war
  • New code written in 594 BC by Solon
  • Allowed more land to poor farmers
  • No more debt slavery
  • Encouraged trade, commerce (middle class)
  • Draco - LawgiverSolon – lawgiverThe City State of Athens
  • Tyranny = one person who
  • seizes power by force
  • Rebellion of farmers finally brought new government
  • The City State of Athens
  • Tyranny not a negative idea in Greece
  • Series of tyrants rule, starting with Peisistratus in 541 BC
  • Very popular ruler who built up Athens
  • Rival invited Spartans in to fight against his successors (family)
  • PeisistratusAthenian Democracy
  • Spartans: fix your government!!!
  • Athenian Democracy resulted
  • All citizens split into ten “tribes”
  • Each tribe elected 50 representatives to central assembly
  • Assembly was both a legislature and a supreme court
  • Offices filled by lot (random chance)
  • Ten Strategos (generals) elected for 1 year terms
  • Assembly had power to ostracize, or banish, citizens for 10 years
  • The City State AthensOrganization of Athenian DemocracyOther City States
  • Thebes
  • Often fought with Athens
  • “Sacred Band”
  • 150 homosexual couples
  • Professional soldiers
  • Beat Spartans twice
  • Corinth
  • Strategic location astride isthmus
  • Often allied with Sparta
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