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CIVIL AIR PATROL United States Air Force Auxiliary Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama. Disclaimer : This presentation is for the exclusive use of the Civil Air Patrol and is not to be used for sale or profit . ROCKETS. Aerospace Dimensions. MODULE 4. By Patrick B. Smith, Washington Wing, CAP.
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CIVIL AIR PATROLUnited States Air Force AuxiliaryMaxwell Air Force Base, AlabamaDisclaimer:This presentation is for the exclusive use of the Civil Air Patrol and is not to be used for sale or profit.ROCKETSAerospace DimensionsMODULE 4By Patrick B. Smith, Washington Wing, CAPChapter 1 - History of RocketsAfter completing of this chapter, you should be able to:
  • Identify historical facts about the Greeks, Chines and British, and their roles in the development of rockets.
  • Describe America’s early contributions to the development of rockets.
  • List the early artificial and manned rocket launches and their missions.
  • Important Terms - History of Rockets
  • Neil Armstrong - first man to walk on the Moon
  • Roger Bacon - increased the range of rockets
  • Wernher von Braun - director of the V-2 rocket project
  • William Congreve - designed rockets for military use
  • Jean Froissart - improved the accuracy of rockets by launching them through tubes
  • Yuri Gagarin - a Russian; the first man in space
  • John Glenn - the first American to orbit the Earth
  • Robert Goddard - experimented with solid and liquid propellant rockets; is called the “Father of Modern Rocketry”
  • William Hale - developed spin stabilization
  • Important Terms - History of Rockets
  • Hero - developed the first rocket engine
  • Sergi Korelev - the leading Soviet rocket scientist
  • Sir Isaac Newton - laid scientific foundation for modern rocketry with his laws of motion
  • Hermann Oberth - space pioneer; wrote a book about rocket travel into outer space
  • Alan Shepard - first American in space
  • Skylab - first US space station
  • Space Shuttle - a space transportation system for traveling to space and back to Earth
  • Sputnik I - first artificial satellite
  • Konstantine Tsiolkovsky - proposed the use of rockets for space exploration
  • ANCIENT HISTORY
  • The history of rockets date back to 400 BC when a Greek named Archytas built a flying wooden pigeon. It was propelled by escaping steam.
  • About 300 years later, another Greek, Hero, developed the first “rocket” engine.
  • Also propelled by steam. As the water was heated, the steam traveled through the tubes and escaped through the L-shaped tubes at opposite ends of the sphere. ANCIENT HISTORY
  • By the first century AD, the Chinese had developed a form of gunpowder used in fireworks for religious and festive celebrations.
  • Experimentation with powder-filled bamboo tubes then attaching these tubes to arrows.
  • In 1232, with the Chinese and Mongols at war, these early rockets were used in battle.
  • EARLY HISTORY
  • Rocket experiments continued through the 13th to 15th centuries.
  • In England, Roger Bacon improved the forms of gunpowder and increasing the range of rockets.
  • In France, Jean Froissart achieved more accuracy by launching rockets through tubes. This idea was the forerunner of the modern bazooka.
  • ROGER BACON 1214 - 1294JEAN FROISSART 1330 - 1400?In the 17th century, Sir Isaac Newton laid the scientific foundations for modern rocketry. These laws later influenced the design of rockets. EARLY HISTORY
  • At the end of the 18th century, Colonel William Congreve had increased the range of rockets from 200 to 3,000 yards.
  • Colonel Congreve’s rockets were very successful, not because of accuracy, but because of the sheer numbers that could be fired.
  • Congreve rockets lit the sky during the battle at Fort McHenry in 1812, while Francis Scott Key wrote his famous poem. The poem later became our national anthem, “The Star Spangled Banner.”William Hale developed a technique called spin stabilization in which escaping exhaust gases struck small vanes at the bottom of the rocket causing it to spin much as a bullet does in flight. Many rockets still use variations of this principal today. MODERN ROCKETRY
  • In 1897, a Russian schoolteacher, Konstantin Tsiolkivsky (1857-1935), proposed the idea of space exploration by a rocket.
  • He published a report in 1903 suggesting the use of liquid propellants for rockets to achieve greater range.
  • Tsiolkovsky stated that only the exhaust velocity of escaping gasses limited the speed and range of a rocket.
  • “The Father of Modern AstronauticsMODERN ROCKETRY
  • Dr. Robert Goddard conducted experiments with rockets leading to major breakthroughs in their development.
  • His earliest experiments were with solid-propellants but became convinced that liquid fuel would better propel a rocket.
  • In 1926, Goddard achieved the first successful flight with a liquid-propellant rocket.
  • Dr. Goddard also developed a gyroscope system for flight control.
  • THE “FATHER OF MODERN ROCKERTY”In 1923, Herman Oberth of Germany published a book about rocket travel into outer space. Because of his writings, small rocket societies were started around the world. In Germany, one such society, the Society for Space Travel, led to the development of the V-2 rocket. MODERN ROCKETRY
  • With the fall of Germany, the Allies captured many unused V-2 rockets and components.
  • Wernher von Braun (1912-1977) and 120 other scientists, came to the United States to teach American Scientists about rocket engineering.
  • In the Soviet Union, Sergi Korolev (1907-1966) was the leading Russian scientists. He is considered to be the father of the Soviet space program.
  • Sergi Korolev was the leading Russian scientist in rocket development. He organized and led the first successful Soviet ICBM in August 1957THE SPACE RACE
  • On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first artificial (man-made) satellite, Sputnik I.
  • The United States launched Explorer I on January 31, 1958.
  • In October 1958, the United States formally organized the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
  • THE SPACE RACE
  • In April 1961, a Russian named Yuri Gagarin became the first man to orbit Earth.
  • Less than a month later, Alan Shepard, on board Mercury 7, became the first American in space.
  • President John F. Kennedy announces the objective of putting a man on the Moon by the end of the decade.
  • ASTRONAUT ALAN B. SHEPARD, USN1923 - 1998Yuri GagarinAstronaut John H. GlennTHE SPACE RACE
  • After Project Mercury was Project Gemini using the larger Titan II rocket.
  • Gemini demonstrated that rendezvous and docking of two spacecraft could be safely done in space.
  • The Apollo program began with the development of the Saturn I, IB and V launch vehicles.
  • The “Mercury Seven”THE SPACE RACE
  • In October 1968, a Saturn IB launched the first three-person mission, Apollo 7.
  • After Project Mercury was Project Gemini using the larger Titan II rocket.
  • The Apollo Program landed a man on the moon in 1969.
  • Three separate missions in 1973-1974 to the US space station Skylab.
  • Neil Armstrong becomes the first man to walk on the moon, July 20, 1969SKYLABSKYLAB WAS LAUNCHED IN 1973 AND HAD THREE SEPARATE MISSIONS BETWEEN 1973 AND 1974. THE LAST MISSION LASTED 84 DAYSTHE SPACE SHUTTLE READY FOR LAUNCHChapter 2 - Rocket PrinciplesAfter completing of this chapter, you should be able to:
  • Define acceleration
  • Define inertia
  • Define thrust
  • Describe Newton’s First Law of Motion
  • Describe Newton’s Second Law of Motion
  • Describe Newton’s Third Law of Motion
  • Important Terms - Rocket Principles
  • acceleration - the rate of change in velocity with respect to time
  • inertia - the tendency of an object at rest to stay at rest and an object in motion to stay in motion
  • Newton’s First Law of Motion - a body at rest remains at rest and a body in motion tends to stay in motion at a constant velocity unless acted on by an outside force
  • Newton’s Second Law of Motion - the rate of change in the momentum of a body is proportional to the force acting upon the body and is in the direction of force
  • Newton’s Third Law of Motion - to every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
  • thrust - to force or push, the amount of push used to get the rocket traveling upwards
  • Important Terms - Rocket Principles
  • acceleration - the rate of change in velocity with respect to time
  • inertia - the tendency of an object at rest to stay at rest and an object in motion to stay in motion
  • Newton’s First Law of Motion - a body at rest remains at rest and a body in motion tends to stay in motion at a constant velocity unless acted on by an outside force
  • Newton’s Second Law of Motion - the rate of change in the momentum of a body is proportional to the force acting upon the body and is in the direction of force
  • Newton’s Third Law of Motion - to every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
  • thrust - to force or push, the amount of push used to get the rocket traveling upwards
  • PRINCIPLES
  • In its simplest form, a rocket is a chamber enclosing a gas under pressure. A small opening at one end of the chamber allows the gas to escape, and thus provides a thrust that propels the rocket in the opposite direction.
  • NEWTON’S FIRST LAW OF MOTION
  • A body a rest remains at rest and a body in motion tends to stay in motion at a constant velocity unless acted on by an outside
  • NEWTON’S SECOND LAW OF MOTION
  • The rate of change in the momentum of a body is proportional to the force acting upon the body and is in the direction of the force
  • Mass (m), acceleration (a), and force (f) - f = ma (force equals mass times acceleration)
  • NEWTON’S THIRD LAW OF MOTION
  • To every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
  • Chapter 3 - Rocket Systems and ControlsAfter completing of this chapter, you should be able to:
  • Identify the four major systems of a rocket.
  • Describe the purpose of each of the four major systems of a rocket.
  • Define payload.
  • Important Terms - Rocket Systems and Controls
  • airframe - the shape of the rocket
  • control system - steers the rocket and keeps it stable
  • guidance system - gets the rocket to its destination; the brain of the rocket
  • payload - what the rocket is carrying
  • propulsion - everything associated with propelling the rocket
  • thrust - to force or push; the amount of push used to get a rocket traveling upwards
  • Are there any questions?
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