Computer-mediated communication

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Computer-mediated communication. Acknowledgements to Euan Wilson (Staffordshire University). Topic includes. E-mail Bulletin boards Structured message system Computerised meeting rooms Video conferencing. E-mail. In relation to Groupware email is the most popular least expensive
Computer-mediated communicationAcknowledgements to Euan Wilson (Staffordshire University)Topic includes
  • E-mail
  • Bulletin boards
  • Structured message system
  • Computerised meeting rooms
  • Video conferencing
  • E-mail
  • In relation to Groupware email is the
  • most popular
  • least expensive
  • most successful
  • Systems vary with respect to the amount of support provided for Groupware functions
  • E-mail (2)
  • E-mail stages
  • Preparation
  • Despatch
  • Notification
  • Receipt
  • Bulletin boards
  • Contributions are submitted by users to a specific conference or newsgroup
  • Contributions may be moderated by a bulletin board administrator
  • Following possible moderation, contributions are made available to all users of the service.
  • E-mail v Bulletin Boards
  • In e-mail the message author selects the recipients, though some distribution lists may be administered centrally.
  • In bulletin boards, it is the recipient who decides what to subscribe to.
  • Senders do not know who will read their contributions.
  • Contributions may be moderated.
  • Question
  • Does the “mail box” you use provide enough functionality to be the core of a Groupware system ?
  • Definition of Groupware (1)
  • Lynch et al. (1990)
  • “groupware is distinguished from normal software by the basic assumption it makes; groupware makes the user aware that he is part of a group, whilst most other software seeks to hide and protect users from each other …”
  • Definition of Groupware (2)
  • Two main types of groupware exist
  • Asynchronous
  • Synchronous
  • Definition of Groupware (3)
  • Refined by Preece [1994] (who adapted Shneirderman [1992]) (definition of CSCW)
  • Same time Different times
  • Same place face-to-face Asynchronous interaction (class rooms, (project scheduling, co- meeting rooms) ordination tools)Different place Synchronous distribution Asynchronous distribution (shared editors, video (email, bulletin boards, windows) conferences)De Sanctis and Gallupe (1987)
  • Johansen (1988)
  • Baecker et al (1995)
  • Asynchronous Groupware
  • E-mail
  • originally “point to point” communication
  • snail mail but with greater speed and efficiency
  • Newsgroup
  • extension of email
  • centrally stored
  • ordered / structured
  • Issues
  • Electronic etiquette
  • changes in group dynamics
  • allows the employees to feel “connected”
  • problems of authority, control and influence
  • junk mail
  • structure
  • Structured Messages
  • Structured messages systems represent an attempt to provide users with better methods of organising, classifying, filtering and managing messages
  • creation of “intelligent” processes which delegate tasks to agents
  • Information Lens
  • Malone et al. 1987, 1989
  • an environment for intelligent email management using semi-structured messages
  • methods for mail management via the specification of rules for processing messages
  • Object Lens and Oval
  • Malone et al 1988, 1992
  • representation of “things” in the world as semi structured objects with template based interfaces
  • summarising collection of objects into views
  • development of rule based agents
  • Multimedia mail
  • Allows data other than text
  • images
  • audio
  • video
  • IBM 1995, Wang Labs 1989
  • MIME - multipurpose Internet mail extensions
  • Computational mail
  • Embedding of programs within email (Borenstein 1993)
  • active messages can carry out particular interactions with recipients in addition to transmitting information
  • Language / Action Perspective
  • One way in which interdependencies amongst co-workers can is achieved is through language
  • Winograd defines conversation as a means
  • to indicate a co-ordinated sequence of acts that can be interpreted as having linguistic meaning”
  • Co-ordinator
  • Each message is treated as a move in a conversation.
  • A request can be followed by
  • accepting that request
  • declining the request
  • offering an alternative
  • nothing
  • Each leads to other steps
  • Workflow
  • In e-mail the focus is on the process of messaging
  • In workflow processing, the focus is on messages that define process
  • Co-operative Hypertext
  • focus instead on the corpus of messages or other computer documents and their interrelationships
  • web of complex information is recorded and structured into a hypertext
  • examples, collaborative knowledge building, asynchronous collaborative writing, organisational memory
  • Organisational Memory
  • Conklin (1992)
  • organisations must shift from a document and artefact orientated paradigm to one that embraces process as well
  • software that integrates three technologies
  • hypertext
  • groupware
  • rhetorical method (Issue based information system)
  • Rhetorical method
  • Can improve quality of dialogue
  • by providing structures for discussions about complex problems
  • improved conversation record
  • recorded by thread rather than time
  • Lotus Notes
  • Most successful organisational memory product
  • is “an integrated communications and data base network application designed to gather, organise and distribute information among work groups, regardless of individual members physical locations”
  • Connor (1992)
  • First major user of Notes
  • Price-Waterhouse
  • three major business issues
  • Nobody knew who had the knowledge needed to solve a particular problem
  • PW professional were constantly re-inventing the wheel
  • need for better communication
  • Laube, PW Chief Information Office
  • introduced from the top-down
  • Advantages
  • Increased structure raises potential for automation, for example in:
  • Message-base searching (e.g. with keywords)
  • Tracing conversation threads
  • Automatic routing to relevant users.
  • Formalised model of conversation:
  • focuses attention
  • clarifies actions
  • clarifies deadlines
  • Disadvantages
  • Rigid message structure leads to bending of message types etc.
  • Over use of reminders can lead to sabotage and widespread disillusion
  • Formal communications model can straight-jacket communications.
  • Synchronous Groupware
  • Desktop conferencing systems
  • Electronic meeting rooms
  • Media spaces
  • Related Search
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