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  BENEFICIAL ORGANISM PARASITOIDS 1. Common names:  Braconid Wasp Scientific name:  Phanerotoma sp. Family: Braconidae   Order-  Hymenoptera Class:  insect Phylum: Arthropoda Physical Description : Harmless to humans and animals. Species can vary in color from yellowish, black, or red and are usually 1/10 to 1/4 inches long. The eggs are laid in the  bodies of host insects, where the white worm-like larva develops. Life Cycle: Adult wasps lay eggs in the bodies of host insects, usually aphids and caterpillars. Larvae are white, wormlike and develop within the host. Several generations a year. Hibernate as larvae or pupae in host insect. Hosts are usually caterpillars or aphids. Silken cocoons in various forms can be seen on the backs of caterpillars. The naked Braconid Wasp species does not form a cocoon. Complete metamorphosis. Importance:  Control aphids, caterpillar and moth larvae, fly larvae, and aphids. Adults help  pollinate flowers. Distribution- distributed worldwide 2. Common Name:  Tachinid Flies Scientific Name:   Bombyliopsis abrupta  Phylum:  Arthropoda Class:  Insecta Order:  Diptera Family:  Tachinidae Appearance:  The family Tachinidae is the most important family of parasitic flies providing  biological control. Tachinid larvae are internal parasites of immature beetles, butterflies, moths, sawflies, earwigs, grasshoppers, or true bugs. Adults measure between 3 and 14 mm (<1/2 inch), are often dark, robust, hairy and resemble houseflies, but with very stout bristles at the tips of their abdomens. Life Cycle: SPRING/EARLY SUMMER A: The parasite spends the winter as first-instars larvae inside overwintering adult elm leaf  beetles. B:  Erynniopsis  complete development after beetles begin feeding on foliage in the  spring and adult parasites emerge from adult beetles; this parasite emergence is not readily observed. C: Each fly lays one egg on each of several dozen beetle larvae. Eggs hatch and the  parasite larvae enter their host and feed inside. D: During spring and early summer  parasitized beetle larvae are killed.  Erynniopsis antennata  then develop into black to reddish, cylinder- or teardrop-shaped parasite pupae at the tree base among yellowish beetle pupae. Imporatance : Help to control many troublesome insect. Tachinid larvae destroy the eggs of many pest insect,including caterpillars, beetles, true bugs,flies,grasshoppers, and katydids Distribution: Species occur in many habitats in many regions, including  Neotropical, Nearctic,[1] Afrotropical,[2]Palaearctic, Oriental, Australasian and Oceanic.    3. Common Name :   armored scale parasites Scientific name:  Aphytis melinus   Family:  Diaspididae  Class: Insecta  Order:  Hymenoptera  Phylum:  Arthropoda Appearance:    Aphytis melinus  is an important parasite of several species of armored scales including California red scale, latania scale, San Jose scale, and oleander scale. Several other closely related (and difficult to distinguish)  Aphytis species attack various armored scales in California.  Aphytis  feeds on and oviposits in immature scales, preferring virgin adult female scales. Adult  Aphytis  are tiny wasps, measuring approximately 2 mm (1/16 in) long, are yellow and have short knobby antennae.  Aphytis melinus  adults can be confused with the adult male California red scale; however, the male scale has long antennae, a dark band around its back, and only one pair of wings.  Life Cycle: Females of many scale species reproduce without mating (there are no males). At maturity, adult females produce eggs that are usually hidden under their bodies or covers. Eggs hatch into tiny crawlers (mobile first-instar nymphs), which are yellow to orangish in most species. Crawlers walk over the plant surface, are blown by wind to other plants, or can  be inadvertently moved by people or birds. They settle down and begin feeding within a day or two after emergence.    Imporatnce  -The black parlatoria scale has long been considered one of the major pests of citrus in certain areas. In some countries the scale may not be considered a serious pest, but  populations occasionally become a problem in localized areas. Heavy infestations of this scale cause chlorosis and premature drop of leaves, dieback of twigs and branches, stunting and distortion of fruit, and fruit drop before it is mature. Perhaps the most characteristic damage is the virtually unremovable scale cover on the fruit. Generally, the scale is so firmly attached to the fruit that it cannot be removed, causing rejection in most fresh fruit markets. Distribution: worldwide distributed 4.Common Name:  Egg Parasites Scientific name :    Trichogramma  spp. Phylum:  Arthropoda Class:  Insecta Order:  Hymenoptera Family:  Trichogrammatidae Appearance:  Adults are approximately 1/25 inch (1 mm) or less  —  the size of a period at the end of a sentence. They often have wing hairs (setae) arranged in rows. Their body is relatively compact and the antennae are short. Trichogramma  species are difficult to identify due to their minute size and generally uniform morphological features Life Cycle:  Trichogramma  spp. undergo complete metamorphosis. The adult wasp lays an egg within a recently laid host egg, and as the wasp larva develops, it eats the host embryo, causing the egg to turn black. Because their life cycle from egg to adult is about 7 to 10 days, these parasites have many more generations than their hosts, and their populations can increase rapidly.    Importance:  Trichogramma  turns the eggs of some caterpillar species black. This is the best way to detect parasitization by Trichogramma . Distribution: Helicoverpa egg parasitoids occur in all cotton districts. 5. Common Name:  Aphidius spp. Scientific name: Aphidius  spp. Phylum:  Arthropoda Class:  Insecta Order: Hymenoptera Family: Aphidiidae Appearance:  Aphidius  adults are small wasps, typically less than 1/8 inch (3 mm) long. During their larval stage, most  Aphidius  feed within the body of an aphid. Complete metamorphosis takes place within the host. The female wasp lays an egg in an aphid. When the egg hatches, the wasp larva feeds inside the aphid. As the larva matures the aphid is killed and becomes slightly puffy or mummified, usually turning tan or golden in color. Life Cycle: A: An adult parasite lays an egg inside a live aphid. B: The egg hatches into a  parasite larva that grows as it feeds on the aphid's insides. C: After killing the aphid, the  parasite pupates. D: An adult wasp emerges from the dead aphid, then flies off to find and  parasitize other aphids.
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