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1. 1 GRAMMAR PREPARED BY S.RAJENDRAN,B.Sc.,M.A.M.Ed., PRINCIPAL S.K.A. TTI FOR WOMEN, AUNDIPATTY. 2. 2 NOUN A noun is word used as the name of a person, place or thing.…
  • 2. 2 NOUN A noun is word used as the name of a person, place or thing. Examples:- Raman, Chennai, Mumbai, bus, bicycle, car, flower, Hari singh etc
  • 4. 4 PROPER NOUN The name of a particular person or place is called a Proper Noun Examples:-Asoka, Calcutta, Ganges, Babar, Mumbai, Yamuna, Solomon, Krishna, Ram, Chennai, Volvo Bus etc
  • 5. 5 COMMON NOUN A common noun is the name of a person or thing of the same class Examples:- shop, boy, birthday, rain, tree, town, city, ship, battle, grapes, fox, elephant, cat etc
  • 6. 6 COLLECTIVE NOUN A collective noun is the name of a group of persons or things of the same class Examples:- group, bunch, committee, crowd, team, assembly, army, platoon, battalion, mob, fleet etc
  • 7. 7 ABSTRACT NOUN An abstract noun is the name of a quality, an action or a state Examples:- Goodness, slavery, kindness, cleverness, darkness, truth, wisdom, cleanliness, godliness. Beauty, honesty, courage etc
  • 9. 9 MARK THE NOUNS IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES This is a group of workers Rahim opened the door Our army won He is looking for truth Bangalore is a big city
  • 10. 10 CLASSIFY THE NOUNS Love, honesty, truth, courage, bread Paper, water, copper, wool, man Rome,Hyderabad, Perth, Boston, Patience Class, team, jury, Nehru, board Bicycle, table, elephant, stove, weights
  • 12. 12 Use of adjectives in sentences Ram is a clever student The sky is blue Babu is a good boy I saw a good film I have enough books
  • 13. 13 Use of adjectives in sentences He had three boys Mumbai is a big city I have a good pen Nehru was a famous leader There are four chairs in this room
  • 14. 14 SOME MORE EXAMPLES OF ADJECTIVES Lazy, big, large, small, little, some, enough, quick, slow, sad, brave, wise, Foolish, polite, each, many, golden, stormy, beautiful, clever Wealthy, famous, ripe, this, that, these, those, such, same
  • 16. 16 USE OF ‘THE’ Before the names of well-known books, newspapers and magazines Examples:- The Bible is a sacred book “The Hindu” is the name of a newspaper The Kumudam is a good Tamil magazine
  • 17. 17 Use of “The” Before the names of rivers, seas, oceans and mountain ranges Examples:- The Ganges is a sacred river of the Hindus The pacific ocean is the biggest ocean The Cauvery is a river passing through Tamil Nadu
  • 18. 18 Use of “The” Before the names of trains, ships, aero planes, famous buildings and well-known families Examples:- The Tamil Nadu Express is late today The INS VIRAT is a ship The Charminar is situated in Hyderabad
  • 19. 19 Use of “The” Before words showing number, weight and measure Examples:- Bananas are sold by the dozen The distance between New Delhi and Agra is about two hundred kilo metres.
  • 20. 20 Use of “The” Before important historical events Examples:- The first Battle of Panipat was won by Babar Gandhiji started the Quit India Movement
  • 21. 21 USE OF “A” Before singular words beginning with a consonant or words beginning with a vowel, having a consonant sound Examples:- I bought a purse He is a useful servant He gave me a one-rupee note
  • 22. 22 USE OF “AN” Before singular words beginning with a vowel sound or words beginning with a silent ‘h’. Examples:- He takes an egg daily Have you ever seen an elephant? An honest person never steals His father is an honourable man
  • 23. 23 TENSES TENSE is form taken by a verb to show the time of an action or a state There are three main tenses The present tense The past tense The future tense
  • 24. 24 Present Tense The present tense refers to the present time Examples:- She reads this book everyday The girls are singing He has gone to the post office They have been working in the garden for two days
  • 25. 25 Past Tense The PAST TENSE refers to the past time Examples:- She told us a story They were looking at the pictures Mohan had eaten his dinner when I went to see him He had been thinking of his money all the time you talked to him
  • 26. 26 FUTURE TENSE The FUTURE TENSE refers to the future time Examples:- It will get dark soon I shall see you tomorrow He will be staying with us for a week We shall have invited them before next Monday
  • 28. 28 FOUR DIFFERENT FORMS OF THE PRESENT TENSE I write a letter I am writing a letter I have written a letter I have been writing a letter since morning
  • 29. 29 I write a letter This sentence does not show whether the action is complete or incomplete. So, the verb “write” is said to be in the PRESENT INDEFINITE form
  • 30. 30 Present Indefinite He sings well It happens every Sunday We usually listen to the radio in the evening She teaches Hindi in class V I consider him to be fortunate I really enjoy travelling She often goes to Church The children love jeans The sun sets in the west The crow is black Ramu generally wears trousers
  • 31. 31 I am writing a letter This sentence shows that the action is still going on Hence the verb “am writing” is said to be in the PRESENT CONTINUOUS form
  • 32. 32 Present continuous The baby is still sleeping They are playing football He is working with great skill We are not trying to convince you Raju is reading a newspaper at present My parents are going to the theatre I am revising the portions Why are you playing now? She is not reading the lesson correctly The boys are not wasting their time
  • 33. 33 I have written a letter This sentence shows that the action is complete So, the verb “have written” is said to be in the PRESENT PERFECT form
  • 34. 34 Present Perfect I have already done my work He has come from Dubai They have gone to Kanpur He has not yet completed his work The plane has just left I have not spoken to her since last Monday Have you written to her? I have worked here for ten days
  • 35. 35 Present perfect I have washed my hands just now I have found the pen you are searching for They have been in Nepal for the last four months I have known him for the past twenty years I have never had problems regarding finance Have you seen Ramesh? Javed Akhtar has written several lyrics and stories Scientists have discovered many hidden laws of nature
  • 36. 36 I have been writing a letter since morning This sentence shows that the action continues with reference to the time of commencement Hence, the verb “have been writing” is said to be in the PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS form
  • 37. 37 PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS The baby has been sleeping for 3 hours They have been living here since 1970 The teacher has been waiting for you since 10 am He has been reading You have been reading They have been reading I have been reading till mid night It has been raining heavily all night How long have you been staying in Germany? I have been waiting in the queue for a long time I have been learning Arabic for 3 years
  • 38. 38 THREE TENSES - PRESENT, PAST & FUTURE There are four forms each to all the above-said tenses The four forms are:- Indefinite Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous
  • 39. 39 Four different forms of the past tense PAST INDEFINITE – I loved PAST CONTINUOUS - I was loving PAST PERFECT – I have loved PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS – I had been loving
  • 40. PAST INDEFINITE -used to denote a single act in the past, to denote a habitual action in the past, to denote an action going on 40 in the past Babar defeated Rana Sanga at Panipat Mugal kings were crowned at Delhi While they danced we sang She was late yesterday He was angry We were grateful They were happy Ramu came home yesterday My sister wanted a pen I saw him last year Teacher reached here an hour ago
  • 41. Past Continuous – used to represent an action as going on at some point 41 in the past They were playing Tennis when he saw them When he came in, we were eating our supper The patient was sleeping when the doctor went to see him When she came in, Ramu was reading a letter When I saw him, he was playing chess When I saw her, she was singing a song When the headmaster came in, I was teaching Mathematics
  • 42. Past Perfect – denotes an action completed at some point in past time before another action was 42 commenced The rain had stopped when we came out I had written the letter before he arrived I had done my exercise, when Hari came to see me The plane had left before we reached the aerodrome She felt sorry for what she had done They went away after they had finished their work If you had worked hard, you would have passed the exam.
  • 43. 43 Past perfect I had gone to bed when the phone rang I had wanted to go to the temple before his arrival. After he had finished reading he switched off the light She had hoped to retire at 60 but they asked her to continue for a few more years The film had already started when we entered the hall. She had just stepped into the car when the incident took place
  • 44. 44 Past Perfect Continuous – denotes a completed action which was going on in the past before another action was commenced He said that he had been learning English since 1989 They said that they had been staying there for two months I had been loving her since my school days I had been trying hard to clear the IAS exam since my graduation I had been working in Godrej company since 2005
  • 45. 45 FUTURE INDEFINITE – used for an action that has to take place I shall see him tomorrow She will sing a song I will help you (willingness, promise) We shall reach there at 6 p.m. He will write it on the notice board Will you read it? I shall go to Bangalore tomorrow We will give donation I will give you my pen (promise) She shall go there tomorrow (command) They shall have a holiday tomorrow
  • 46. 46 Future Continuous – represents an action as going on at some point in future time I shall be reading the paper, then. We shall be celebrating at this time tomorrow They will be writing She will be reading They will be talking
  • 47. 47 FUTURE PERFECT – denotes an action that will be completed at some point in future time I shall have written my exercise, by that time I shall have finished this work by the time you come back He will have written the book by the end of June The marriage party will have reached the temple by 8 a.m.
  • 48. 48 FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS I shall have been sleeping He will have been waiting They will have been writing We shall have been teaching You will have been reading (shall have been + ing, will have been + ing)
  • 49. 49 VERB A verb is a word which tells us what a person or a thing is doing Examples:- He reads a book I went to his house Leela is singing a song
  • 50. 50 TRANSITIVE VERB A verb which has an object is called a transitive verb Examples:- He writes a letter He sees pictures Raju writes a poem We hear songs She practises dance
  • 51. 51 INTRANSITIVE VERB A verb which has no object is called an intransitive verb. Examples:- The sun rises The baby sleeps The bell rang loudly He fought bravely She plays only on holidays
  • 52. 52 ADVERB An adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb. Examples:- Kishore runs quickly This is a very sweet mango Govind reads quite clearly
  • 53. 53 Some sentences using adverbs Zaheer Khan can bowl fast He behaves well We started early He works hard all day The patient is much better
  • 54. 54 Some sentences using adverbs I can hardly believe it Do not walk so fast India can ill afford to lose the match Ram works hard He arrived late
  • 55. 55 Some sentences using adverbs She is prettily dressed Akbar ruled wisely for many years His wife never cooks Is the box big enough? He has only slept three hours
  • 56. 56 Some sentences using adverbs We usually have breakfast at eight He treated Balbir kindly She behaved foolishly They have completed the task nicely He talked sweetly
  • 57. 57 Some sentences using adverbs She speaks English well He does his work carefully The ship is going slowly It is raining heavily Don’t talk so loud
  • 58. 58 Some sentences using adverbs They walk slowly We wake early A woman tells wisely They take books easily She writes carefully He reads loudly Women live happily Dogs run bravely I sleep well Raju does not read quickly
  • 59. 59 AUXILIARY VERBS The verbs “ be (am, is, was etc), have and do” , when used with ordinary verbs to make tenses, passive forms, questions and negatives, are called auxiliary verbs Auxiliary means “ helping”
  • 60. 60 Modal verbs The verbs “ can, could, may, might, will, would, shall , should, must and ought are called modal verbs They are used before ordinary verbs and express meanings such as permissions, possibility, certainty and necessity. “ need and dare” are sometimes used as modal verbs Modal verbs are often included in the group of auxiliary verbs
  • 61. THE VERB-PERSON & NUMBER 61 When the subject is singular, verb will also be singular Example:- The child is crying He is a good boy When the subject is plural, verb will also be plural Example:- The children are smart They are girls
  • 62. The Verb – Person & Number If the subject is plural, base form of the verb should be used Example They talk good English They go to the church every Sunday If the subject is singular, base form + s(es) should be used 62 Example She talks very loudly He goes to the temple everyday
  • 63. The verb – person & number 63 I, you etc are used as plural subjects Examples- I like you You look very tired I try to help him You are very intelligent I agree with you You are a smart girl
  • 64. 64 PRONOUNS A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun Examples:- I gave him my pen He is young They are young
  • 65. 65 Personal Pronouns The pronouns which stand for the name of persons or things are said to be personal pronouns Personal Pronouns are of three kinds First person Second person Third person
  • 66. 66 Personal pronouns of the ‘FIRST PERSON’ The pronouns ‘I’ and ‘We’ which denote the person speaking are said to be personal pronouns of the first person Examples:- I, me, my, we, our, us etc I have a bicycle My father gave it to me
  • 67. 67 Personal pronouns of the ‘SECOND PERSON’ The second person stands for the person spoken to Examples:- You, Your, Yours etc You are a good boy This book is yours
  • 68. 68 Personal pronouns of the ‘THIRD PERSON’ The third person stands for anyone or anything Examples:- He, his, him, she, her etc He is my friend She is a good girl
  • 69. 69 Other kinds of pronouns This, these, such, that, those etc (demonstrative pronouns) All, some, few, many, nobody, someone, somebody, nothing, anybody etc (Indefinite pronouns) Each, either, neither etc (distributive pronouns) Who, whom, whose, what etc (interrogative pronouns)
  • 70. 70 PREPOSITION A preposition is a word placed before a noun or a pronoun to show its relation to some other word in the sentence Examples:- The cow is in the field Mother is angry with you
  • 72. 72 SENTENCES WITH PREPOSITIONS He robbed me of my purse He puts heavy loads on my back They took the pot to the old woman I have warned him of his carelessness He swam across the river The bus stops at Avadi Raju aimed at the Tiger She left school at fifteen
  • 73. 73 SENTENCES WITH PREPOSITIONS Meet me at ten O’ clock Don’t say anything more about it I will come after lunch The letter A comes before C Can you come before lunch? He walked along the road A river flows between its banks Write your name above this line The ball hit me below the knee
  • 74. 74 Examples for prepositions I often think about you He is about to start Meet me after five O’ clock He swam across the river He walked along the street
  • 75. 75 Examples for prepositions I have seen you before The snake was killed by John He brought a present for his son Swimming is good for health My uncle came from Indore
  • 76. 76 Examples for prepositions I go for a walk in the morning They climbed over the wall He will visit you in the evening He slept for ten hours after the injection He rang up at night
  • 77. 77 Examples for prepositions I will come to your hostel on Sunday I gave the book to a poor boy You may have leave till Monday The rider fell off the horse He went into the shop
  • 78. 78 Examples for prepositions Girls sat near a table What is the time by your watch? He reads till night Whom are you waiting for? He is suffering from fever
  • 79. 79 Single word prepositions About, as, despite, for, on, across, before Of, toward, above, at, during, off, under Underneath, after, behind, from, onto, in Until, against, beneath, over, up, along Beside, into, through, upon, among, like To, with, around, by, near, together, within
  • 80. 80 Multiword prepositions According to, because of, contrary to Except for, in addition to, in spite of On account of, with regard to
  • 81. 81 CONJUNCTION The words that join words or sentences are called CONJUNCTIONS. Examples:- and, but, since, because, for, before, till, whether, so, or etc Vinod and Hari came to our house Uncle came, but Aunty did not come I have no pen, so I did not write English Gopal did not come, because he went to Jaipur
  • 82. 82 Some sentences with conjunctions The cat ran, but I did not see it I learned Hindi and went to Kanpur Leela took a bag and an umbrella I have a good pen, so I shall write with it Ramesh can run very quickly but Suma can’t Manoj has a hen, so he eats egg.
  • 83. 83 Examples for conjunctions Brother and sister went to America Vishnu and Sunny ran Headmaster came to the class, so I did not laugh He sat under the cot, so I did not see He was absent because he was ill
  • 84. 84 Examples for conjunctions The rain had started before I reached office I shall not come unless you need me I have heard from many people that you are wise I have never seen him since he left the place The girls sang while the boys played
  • 85. 85 Examples for conjunctions I shall not go without you Since he was lazy he failed Raju is intelligent as well as hardworking I would rather suffer than beg him for mercy As the helicopter was landing, it caught fire
  • 86. 86 Examples for conjunctions Praveen went to school and learnt his lesson Get a pen or a pencil She is intelligent but lazy He was ill yet he walked all the way Ranjan could not win because he was weak The boy was caught while he was stealing a watch If it rains today, he will not go
  • 87. 87 Point out the conjunctions We shall play whether you play or not Two and two make four Look before you leap Tell them that I will not come W
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