Eugenics Bibliography

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  Eugenics Bib 12/18/09 JA  A Select Few Annotated References on Darwin's Influenceon Eugenics, Racism, and Nazism  Jerry Bergman, Ph.D. For more on Hitler and Darwin, click  HERE.  Adams, Mark B. The Well Born Science; Eugenics in German, France, Brazil and Russia. New York: OxfordUniversity Press, 1990, 242 pp. This excellent, scholarly history of the eugenics movement has specific chapters onthe movement in France, Brazil, Germany and Russia from the late 1800s to the middle 1940s. Adams discusses  both the theory of evolution and how the eugenics movement developed from Darwin’s theory. He also reviews the contributions of evolutionary theory to both the development of Communism in Russia as well as the Nazimovement.Baker, John R.  Race. New York: Oxford University Press, 1974, 625 pp. An extensive discussion of the problemof race, species and evolution. The author covers eugenics, the so-called primitive races such as the Australoids, andsome of the current controversies today that are related to race, evolution and eugenics.Bannister, Robert C. Social Darwinism. Science and Myth in Anglo-American Social Thought  . Philadelphia:Temple University Press, 1979, 298 pp. The most comprehensive effort yet to asses the role played by Darwinianideas in the writings of English language social theorists, and the harm that it caused.Barzum, Jacques.  Race; A Study in Superstition.  New York, NY: Harper and Row Publishers, 1937, reprinted andrevised in 1965 (srcinal title was  Race; A Study in Modern Superstition ), 263 pp. A discussion of the biologicalconcept of race and the various contributions of biologists and others in support of eugenics and racial ideas ingeneral. One of the classic studies on the development of biological racism and the attitudes that are still prevalentamong racists today.Baur, Erwin, Eugen Fischer, and Fritz Lenz.  Human Heredity . New York, NY: Macmillan, 1931, 734 pp.Translated by Eden and Cedar Paul. This scholarly well documented text book was written by several well knownGerman scientists, all of whom were instrumental in supporting and contributing to the academic racism movementin Germany that resulted in the Holocaust.Benedict, Ruth.  Race; Science and Politics.  New York: The Viking Press, 1957, 206 pp. A discussion of the racequestion by a leading American Anthropologist. Stresses that the biological differences in the modern races aresuperficial, an d that the differences are usually greater within a race than between a race. Concludes that “the Bible story of Adam and Eve, father and mother of the whole human race, told centuries ago the same truth that sciencehas shown today; that all peoples on t he earth are a single family and have a common srcin.”  Berg, Manfred and Geoffrey Cocks (editors).  Medicine and Modernity: Public Health and Medical Care in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Germany. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997, 242 pp. Coversin detail the eugenis movement which was seen as a major method to improve the health of the German people.Beyerchen, Alan D. Scientists Under Hitler  .  Politics and the Physics Community in the Third Reich . New Haven,CT: Yale University Press, 1977. Details the responses of German physicists, individually and as a professionalgroup, to the Nazi regime from 1933 to the end of the war. The book is based not only on the usual sources, but also     2   on a variety of unpublished materials as well as the author’s interviews with some of the scientists involved inGerman eugenics movement.Black, Edwin. War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America’s Campaign to Create a Master Race . New York:Four Walls Eight Windows, 2003, 550 pp. An important work that analyzes the influence of eugenics in bothGermany and USA, showing that they had much in common, including the major influence of Darwinism.Boyd, William C. Genetics and the Races of Man. Boston, MA: Little Brown and Company, 1953, 453 pp. Theauthor attempts to base anthropology on genetics instead of bone measurements, skull configuration and other racial physical characteristics. Covers the work of modern geneticists and its relationship to humans. Much discussion of  the “blood - group race,” concept, and endeavors to refute some of the ideas popularized by social Darwinists.  Bradley, Michael. The Iceman Inheritance: Prehistoric Sources of Western Man’s Racism, Sexism and Aggressio n . New York, NY: Kayode Publications Ltd., 1991. Argues that the white race is more aggressive, racist and sexistthan other races due to Darwinian mechanisms of selection. This book has been called racist by its critics.Brantlinger, Patrick.  Dark Vanishing: Discourse on the Extinction of Primitive Races, 1800-1930 . Ithaca, NY:Cornell University, 2003, 248 pp. Documents the thesis that the Darwinian beliefs inevitably results in extinction for inferior groups played a key role in the actual extermination of racial groups. This view also reduced the guilt for theevent that it was believed would happen sooner or later as Darwin predicted in his The Descent of Man , p. 190,where he wrote that inferior humans would eventually be eliminated by the survival of the fittest law.Bruinius, Harry.  Better for All the World: The Secret History of Forced Sterilization and America’s Quest for   Racial Purity . New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006, 401 pp. The history of eugenics in America and the criticalinfluence of Darwinism that resulted in the forced sterilization of 65,000 Americans, many of which were fullynormal. The practice of negative eugenics was sanctioned by the supreme court in Buck vs. Bell ruling in an 8 to 1decision.Burleigh, Michael and Wolfgang Wippermann. The Racial State: Germany 1933-1945 . Cambridge UniversityPress, 386 pp. Covers the Nazi racial policy from 1933-1945 and its tragic results. Notes that, unlike the racistwriters before Darwin such as Gobineau , Darwin’s work “enjoyed massive success after its appearance in 1859” (p. 28).Bytwerk, Randall L.  Julius Strieicher; The Man Who Persuaded a Nation to Hate Jews.  New York, NY: DorsetPress, 1983, 236 pp. Covers the techniques used to cause a civilized nation to murder six million Jews, focusing onthe biological theories of eugenics that Strieicher accepted and taught in order to carry out his campaign againstJews. Shows that the source of many of the beliefs related to racism and inferior and superior groups comes fromsocial Darwinism.Campbell, Byram.  Race and Social Revolution; Twenty-One Essays on Race and Social Problems.  New York, NY:The Truth Seeker Company, 1958, 264 pp. An atheist racist argument that discusses race, eugenics, and related issues, concluding that the white race ideology represents an “ideal race” with worldwide appeal. Concludes that until the dark races change their attitude, there can be no real improvement of the conflicts between the races.Covers race and mongrelization, the brain and intelligence, race, character and temperament, the impact of themonists (by monist he means a soft, tender minded, over concern about other people), concluding that the monists view of “oneness” of the races is a narcotic and that th eir faith in their monistic belief allows the belief to becometheir master, and from then on they do not think independently, but use their reason to search for dogmas that willmore tightly mesh with their delusions. ______.  American Race Theorists; A Critique of Their Thoughts and Methods. San Diego, CA: The Truth Seeker,159 pp. Attempts to refute the arguments of those who believe in racial equality, specifically evaluating the work of Croeber, Hooton, Gillin, Pierson, and others. Examines many of the empirical studies that indicate either racialequality, or racial inequality, based on cultural factors or differences due to prejudice.    3   Cantor, Geoffrey and Marc Swetlitz. 2006.  Jewish Tradition and the Challenge of Darwinism . Chicago: TheUniversity of Chicago Press. 260 pp. An excellent collection of articles on the relationship of Jewish thought andDarwinism, including its effect on Nazi belief and the contribution of Darwinism to the Holocaust.Carlson, Elof Axel. The Unfit: A History of a Bad Idea . Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor LaboratoryPress, 2001, 451 pp. An extensive well documented review of the eugenics movement from Darwin to his cousinGalton to the American and Nazi German applications of eugenic ideas.Castle, William Ernest, John Merle Coulter, Charles Benedict Davenport, Edward Murray East, and WilliamLawrence Tower.  Heredity and Eugenics . Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1913, 315 pp. An importantearly text openly advocating eugenics. Davenport was one of the major scientists behind both the American and Nazi eugenics movements.Chase, Allan.  Legacy of Malthus; The Social Costs of a New Scientific Racism.  New York, NY: Alfred A Knopf,1980, 700 pp. One of the most comprehensive accounts of scientific racism, specifically related to the eugenicsmovement and the work of Galton, Darwin, Davenport and others. Shows how the eugenics movement influenced both many western political movements as well as legislation, adversely affecting a large number of persons, both inthis country and in Europe. A hard hitting, no-holds-barred approach to the eugenics movement.Comas, Juan.  Racial Myths. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press Publishers, 1951, reprinted in 1976 by GreenwoodPress, 51 pp. A discussion of race prepared for the United Nations, specifically focusing on the myth of Aryan or  Nordic superiority and the biological theories of genetics and eugenics as well as the cultural background thatsupported such ideas. Also covers other racial conflicts, such as those involving Blacks, and various other historicalracial conflicts.Conklin, Edwin Grant.  Heredity and Environment. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1920, 361 pp. Anextensive discussion of genetics and heredity as it relates to the evolution of humans. Much of this work deals witheugenics, and the possible methods that eugenic scientists believed, when the book was written, that could be used tofacilitate the evolution of humans. ______. The Direction of Human Evolution . New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1922, 247 pp. A review of the evidence for natural selection of humans, the scientific basis for the inequality of humans, and similar topics.Coon, Carlton S. The Origin of the Races . New York: Knopf, 1962, 745 pp. Argues that the races, like the speciesto which they belong, are evolving as a group and that much of the evolution of the existing races took placeseparately in parallel fashi on over a period of hundreds of thousands of years. Coon concludes “After examiningevery scrap of evidence on fossil man,” that five separate lines of human descent exist, each a race and each as old as humankind itself. The orthodox opinion is that the races of humans became differentiated only very recently, inthe last few tens of thousands of years, after the appearance of   Homo sapiens . Coon claims to have uncovered clear evidence that they separated far earlier, at least as early as the time the first man,  Homo erectus , lived. ______.  Racial Adaptation; A Study of the Origins, Nature and Significance of Racial Variations in Humans. Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall, 1982, 197 pp. One of the more definitive works on the biology of race and theevolutionary srcins of race by one of the most controversial modern scientists who has researched and published inthe area of race for much of his career. ______.  Adventures and Discoveries; The Autobiography of Carlton S. Coon; Anthropologist and Explorer. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1981, 404 pp. Coon, at the time of his death, was a research associate inethnology at the Peabody Museum of Harvard University. This book covers his travels and research, especially inthe area of race biology and the eugenics movement.Cowdry, E.V. (ed)  Human Biology and Racial Welfare.  New York, NY: Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., 1930, 612 pp. Amammoth work that deals with the gamut of material on the srcin of mankind and the races topic, and racial factorsin human life. Much discussion of eugenics, the inheritance of disease, the mingling of the races, and the purposeful    4   improvement of the human race (eugenics). Concludes that certain racial mixtures, such as the Chinese-Hawaiianmix, produce superior progeny, but the Negro-White and the Filapino- European crosses produce a racial type “thatshould be avoided.” Stresses the importance of “good breeding” and that society has a responsibility to prevent the  propagation of bodily defects, mental diseases, and moral degeneracy that is inherited.Cravens, Hamilton. The Triumph of Evolution; American Scientists and the Heredity-Environment Controversy1900-1941. PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1978, 351 pp. Shows that the influence of evolutionary ideas has been as pervasive since the collapse of social Darwinism as before. Covers the emergence of the new generation of evolutionists who were professional scientists in colleges and universities, and the views that they developed, thetheory of the interaction of  heredity and the environment in the formation of humankind’s nature and culture. Concludes that this synthesis includes the idea that a science of humankind can explain and predict behavior, andcause desirable changes in the future is now possible, thus holding out the intoxicating promise of a high level of social control over humans. Stresses the important implications of evolutionary belief in this period of Americanhistory for race, eugenics, mental measurement, testing, psychology of learning and related fields.Crook, Paul D.  Benjamin Kidd; Portrait of a Social Darwinist. London: Cambridge, 1984, 460 pp. Focuses on Kidd’s ideas found in his writings from his most famous work, Social Evolution (1894) to his latest book titled Science of Power  finished shortly before his death in 1916. Shows that while Kidd was an individualistic social Darwinist, he eventually renounced many of the major aspects both of Darwinism and Imperialism. Kidd’s books and journalistic works once had an extraordinary influence on society; he helped to found the British SociologicalSociety in the mid-1900s, and became an important leader in several so-called progressive social movements. ____.  Darwinism War and History . New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. 1994. 306 pp. Evaluates the influence of Darwinism on war and racist imperialism. Crook also reconstructs the influence of Darwin’s disciples on various views of war.Crookshank, F.G. The Mongrel in Our Midst; A Study of Man and His Three Faces.  New York, NY; E.P. Dutton,1924, 124 pp.; 2nd edition 1925; and extensively revised and enlarged in 1931, London: Kegan Paul, 540 pp.Crookshank argues for the view that the three human races evolved from three different primates: the white raceevolved from chimpanzees, the Black race from gorillas, and the yellow race from orangutans. Crookshank utilizesevidence from a wide variety of areas to support this contention. Also, much material in the 3rd edition is on thecause of mongoloidism which Crookshank considered, in part, an atavism, a throwback to our evolutionaryancestors. This book is an example of how much evidence can be stacked up to support a thesis that is totallyinvalid. The author has an M.D. degree and was a fellow of the Royal College.Darwin, Charles Galton. The Next Million Years. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, Inc. 1953, 210 pp.The author is a grandson of Charles Darwin, named after Sir Francis Galton (who was his godfather and the manwho coined the word eugenic   which means “good genes” and spearheaded the now infamous eugenic movement in science). In this work, the author speculates about the future of humankind specifically as related to social and  biological conditions. He concludes that humans are wild animals “just like any ot her species of animal ” (p. 115)which fortunately has been tamed by civilization, a process that he calls “pseudo - domestication.” M any of hisspeculations relative to biological evolution are useful today only for their historical interest.Degler, Carl N.  In Search of Human Nature; Decline and Revival of Darwinism in American Social Thought.  NewYork: Oxford University Press, 1991, 400 pp. An historian who has written much on race, Degler reviews both thehistory and impact of Darwinism on our understanding of human nature. The implications of Darwinism on racism,sexism and the social Darwinism movement are discussed in detail. Also covered are racism in intelligence testing,the practice of involuntary and forced sterilization, the eugenics movement, speculation relating to the hereditycause of crime, the rise of Nazi Germany, and other movements that relied on Darwinism. The author focuses onthe forces behind the Darwinist movement, concluding that ideological reasons, not new biological data, led to analteration of the Darwinist interpretation of biology.deGobineau, Count Arthur (translated by Adrian Collins). The Inequality of the Races. Los Angeles, CA: The Noontide Press, 1966, 218 pp. A translation of the srcinal 1853 French edition of this classic work used by social
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