Fruit Basics

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Fruit Basics. Types of Fruits. From appetizers to dessert, fruits add texture , nutrition , color , and flavor to any meal. Fruits come from flowering plants and contain at least one seed . Categories: Citrus fruits Melons Berries Drupes Pomes Grapes Tropical fruits.
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Fruit BasicsTypes of Fruits
  • From appetizers to dessert, fruits add texture, nutrition, color, and flavor to any meal.
  • Fruits come from flowering plants and contain at least one seed.
  • Categories:
  • Citrus fruits
  • Melons
  • Berries
  • Drupes
  • Pomes
  • Grapes
  • Tropical fruits
  • Citrus Fruits
  • Citrus fruits have a thick, firm rind covered by a thin layer of colored skin, called the zest.
  • The soft, white layer between the zest and the flesh is called the pith, which is slightly bitter.
  • The flesh of citrus fruits is segmented and acidic.
  • They grow on trees and shrubs and are harvested when ripe.
  • Quality citrus fruits are not blemished or soft and puffy
  • Citrus fruits will not continue to ripen after picked
  • Give 3 examples of citrus fruits.
  • Citrus FruitsMelons
  • Sweet melons are fruits with a netted skin or a smooth rind that range in color from creamy to jade green. They belong to a category called muskmelons.
  • Quality melons are firm, heavy for their size, and have a good aroma.
  • Melons can ripen after being picked and are often served raw or pureed into soups and salads.
  • Give 3 examples of melons.
  • MelonsBerries
  • Berries are juicy, thin-skinned fruits with tiny seeds.
  • They grow on bushes and vines and are picked when fully ripened – they will not continue to ripen after being picked
  • Quality berries are sweet, plump and even in color.
  • Give 3 examples of berries.
  • BerriesDrupes
  • Drupes have a soft flesh, thin skin, and one pit, or stone.
  • They can be picked ripe or can ripen after they are picked.
  • Quality drupes are firm and plump, without bruises or blemishes and grow on shrubs and bushes.
  • Give 3 examples of drupes.
  • DrupesPomes
  • Pomes are firm, thin-skinned fruits that grow on trees. They have a central core filled with tiny seeds.
  • Pomes can be picked ripe or be ripened after they are harvested.
  • Quality pomes have smooth skin and no blemishes, bruises, or soft spots.
  • Give 3 examples of pomes.
  • PomesGrapes
  • Grapes grow in clusters on vines.
  • Their flavor and color are found mostly in their skin.
  • Grapes are almost always eaten raw and can be picked ripe or they can ripen after harvest.
  • Quality grapes are plump and juicy, with rich color.
  • Tropical Fruits
  • Tropical fruits grow in hot, tropical regions of the world and ripen after they are picked.
  • Quality tropical fruits are firm, plump, unblemished and have a good color.
  • Give 3 examples of tropical fruits.
  • Tropical FruitsFresh Fruit
  • In season – during the fruits main growing season
  • Fruits can be shipped from other parts of the world where they are in season
  • Knowing what is in season in your area will help you plan menus and keep costs down.
  • Fruits contain nutrients, such as vitamins and phytochemicals – a natural chemical found in plants that may help reduce the risk of some cancers.
  • Purchasing Fresh Fruit
  • Fresh fruits can be purchased ripe or unripe.
  • They are sold by count or weight and are packed in:
  • Flats
  • Shallow boxes, crates or baskets that are used to ship pints and quarts of produce such as strawberries
  • Lugs
  • Often will hold 25 to 40 pounds of produce
  • Cartons
  • Fruits can be purchased
  • Cleaned, peeled, or cut
  • In bulk with sugar and preservatives
  • Packed in large containers of water
  • Ripen and Store Fresh Fruit
  • To be ripe means that the fruit is fully grown and ready to eat.
  • Full size
  • Color deepens and changes
  • Flesh becomes soft, juicy and less tart
  • Flavor and aroma intensifies
  • Ripening does not stop when a fruit is perfectly ripe
  • Some fruits, such as bananas, are often purchased unripened, since they continue to ripen after harvesting
  • Other fruits, such as pineapples, ripen only on the plant and must be rushed to market
  • Ripen and Store Fresh Fruit
  • Fruits give off ethylene gas, an odorless, colorless gas that is emitted naturally as fruits ripen
  • Unripened fruits can be exposed to ethylene gas to encourage ripening
  • To keep fruits from ripening, keep them chilled and isolated from other fruits
  • Apples, melons, and bananas give off large amounts of ethylene gas – store them separately from more delicate fruits and vegetables
  • Canned Fruits
  • Fruits can be canned in:
  • Heavy or light syrup
  • Water or fruit juice
  • Solid packed cans that contain little to no water
  • Fruits are exposed to high temperatures during canning and the heat kills any microorganisms and eliminated oxidation, both which cause fruit to spoil
  • The sealed environment also prevents the fruit from spoiling however the heat will soften fruit
  • The nutritional content is not affected
  • Purchasing and storing canned fruit
  • Canned fruit has an extended shelf life as long as the can remains sealed and undamaged.
  • Do not purchase dented cans.
  • If a can has a bulge, throw it away immediately without opening it
  • Bulges are a sign that botulism, a food borne illness is present
  • Frozen Fruit
  • Freezing stops the growth of microorganisms that cause food to spoil
  • Freezing will not affect the nutritional value, but does change the texture of the fruit
  • Freezing breaks down the cell structure when the water in the fruit expands
  • As fruit thaws, it loses shape because part of the cell structure has been broken down – this leaves the fruit mushy
  • Individually Quickly Frozen – reduces the number of ice crystals that form, keeping the quality of the frozen product higher. It helps the fruit retain its shape.
  • List 6 examples of commonly frozen fruit.Purchase and Storage of Frozen Fruit
  • Frozen fruits are available:
  • Sliced
  • Packed in sugar syrup
  • Whole
  • Pitted
  • Peeled
  • Pureed
  • Seal in moisture-proof bags or other containers
  • After purchased, immediately transfer fruit that will not be used to a freezer so it does not thaw
  • Dried Fruits
  • Dried fruits are found in:
  • Compotes:
  • Fresh or dried fruits that have been cooked in a sugar syrup
  • Chutney:
  • A condiment made from fruit, vinegar, sugar and spices that can be served cold, warm or hot
  • Rehydrate, or add water into, dried fruits before use.
  • Place fruit in boiling water for 30 minutes to 1 hour
  • List 6 examples of dried fruit.
  • Purchase and storage of dried fruit
  • Dried fruits are vacuum packed or shrink wrapped, for purchasing and shipping
  • Store in dated and labeled air-tight containers in a cool place out of direct sunlight to prevent from molding
  • Low moisture dried fruits, like raisins, will spoil more quickly
  • Use within 1 month
  • Cooking Fruits
  • The most common cooking techniques include:
  • Baking
  • Poaching
  • Simmering
  • Deep-frying
  • Sautéing
  • Broiling
  • Grilling
  • When cooking fruits, take care not to overcook or they can become mushy and lose their flavor.
  • Add sugar or acid to help prevent overcooking, which helps keep the fruit firm and retain its form
  • Preparation of Fruit
  • Wash the fruit in cold water. Drain well. Remove stems. If the fruits have skin that needs to be peeled or pulled, do so now.
  • Cut the fruit into halves, quarters, slices or chunks.
  • Remove any seeds and pits. Some fruits may also need to be cored.
  • To prevent enzymatic browning dip the fruit into citrus juice
  • Cooking with Dry Heat
  • Dry heat methods include:
  • Broiling and grilling
  • Baking
  • Sautéing
  • Deep-frying
  • Broiling and Grilling
  • Bananas, apples, peaches and pineapples are often used for these techniques
  • Quickly cook so that they do not become mushy and lose their shape
  • Broiling:
  • Place fruits on a pan under the heat source
  • Rotate to ensure even cooking
  • Grilling:
  • Place fruits directly on the grill or thread onto skewers
  • Rotate to ensure even cooking
  • Baking
  • Cobbler – a deep-dish fruit dessert made commonly from berries, peaches and apples with a crust
  • Common dishes:
  • Baked apples
  • Ham with pineapples
  • Fruit juices and purees can be used with meat to bring out flavor
  • Sautéing
  • When fruits are sautéed in butter, sugar and spices they develop a sweet, rich and syrupy flavor
  • To sauté:
  • Peel and core fruit and remove any seeds
  • Cut into neat, even slices, place in a sauté pan, and cook over high heat
  • Cooking with Moist Heat
  • Two moist heat cooking methods include:
  • Poaching
  • Simmering
  • Poaching
  • Fruits are submerged in various liquids, such as water or sugar syrups
  • Apples, apricots, peaches, pears and plums are often poached at very low temperatures which allows the fruit to retain its shape and flavor and soften gradually
  • Simmering
  • Simmering is used to make fruit compotes and stewed fruits
  • To simmer fruit:
  • Peel, core, and slice
  • Place into a pan with cooking liquid, such as water, sugar, syrup, honey and spices
  • Bring to a simmer and cook until fruit is done
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