Greek City-States

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Greek City-States. Miss LaFerriere Pre-AP World History I. Types of Government. Monarchy Ruled by kings or monarchs Rule is hereditary Some rulers came divine right Practiced in Mycenae (1450 B.C.E). Aristocracy. Ruled by nobility Rule is hereditary and based on land ownership
Greek City-StatesMiss LaFerrierePre-AP World History ITypes of Government
  • Monarchy
  • Ruled by kings or monarchs
  • Rule is hereditary
  • Some rulers came divine right
  • Practiced in Mycenae (1450 B.C.E)
  • Aristocracy
  • Ruled by nobility
  • Rule is hereditary and based on land ownership
  • Social status and wealth support authority
  • Practiced in Athens (c.594 B.C.E)
  • Oligarchy
  • Ruled by a small group of citizens
  • Rule is based on wealth
  • Ruling group controls military
  • Practiced in Sparta (800-600 B.C.E)
  • Direct Democracy
  • Ruled by the citizens
  • Rule is based on citizenship
  • Majority rule decides vote
  • Practiced in Athens (c. 461 B.C.E)
  • Greek City-State
  • Greece was made up of city-states, or polis
  • A polis was made up of a city and its countryside which included numerous villages
  • Most were between 50-500 square miles
  • Usually had no more than 20,000 residents
  • Sparta
  • 3 social groups
  • Equals: descended from the invaders, controlled Sparta
  • Half-citizens: free, paid taxes and served in the army but had no political power, some farmed but others worked in the city as traders or artisans
  • Helots: slaves, greatly outnumbered the other groups so Spartans used force to control them, in large part this is why Sparta became a military city-state
  • Spartan Government
  • Two kings led Sparta
  • 1 king handled military
  • 1 king took care of domestic matters
  • A council of Elders
  • Made up of 28 male citizens over the age of 60
  • Proposed laws and served as a criminal court
  • An assembly
  • Included all male citizens over 30
  • Elected 5 ephors
  • Made sure the kings stayed within the law
  • Elected for a 1 year term
  • Controlled the education of Spartans
  • Spartan Military Society
  • Goal was to make every male citizen a part of the military machine
  • Military worked to expand Sparta and control the helots
  • A group of officials examined new born babies and those deemed unhealthy were left to die
  • At 7 boys left home to join the barracks
  • Mainly military training but they also learned how to read and write
  • From age 18-20 they learned specifically about warfare
  • At 20 they could marry but could not live at home until age 30
  • Were available for military service until the age of 60
  • Spartan Military Society (cont.)
  • Spartan women
  • Received strict physical training
  • Taught to be devoted to the city-state
  • Their best value was seen as producing Spartan soldiers
  • Results of military society:
  • Strong government
  • Almost unbeatable army
  • No individual freedom
  • Created almost no art or literature and made almost no advances in science
  • Athens
  • Went through stages of evolution in government
  • Monarchy
  • Aristocracy
  • Tyranny
  • Democracy
  • Early Athenian government
  • After the monarchy ended, an aristocracy took its place
  • All adult male citizens met in an assembly
  • Elected generals in time of war
  • Elected nine archons (rulers with a 1 year term)
  • First written code created around 621
  • Solon (archon in 594 B.C.) - tyrant
  • Outlawed selling people into slavery to pay their debt
  • Divided citizens into 4 groups based on wealth: wealthiest 2 could hold office
  • Athens' Direct Democracy
  • Origins of democratic principles
  • Public debate
  • Duties of the citizens
  • Only free adult male citizens could participate
  • Women and slaves were left out
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