Hitler / Stalin / Mussolini

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Hitler / Stalin / Mussolini. Hitler’s Germany. Treaty of Versailles’s impact Weimar Republic French seizure of the Ruhr area Inflation 1 dollar = 4 trillion German marks German middle class = destroyed German people felt let down. Great Depression.
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Hitler / Stalin / MussoliniHitler’s Germany
  • Treaty of Versailles’s impact
  • Weimar Republic
  • French seizure of the Ruhr area
  • Inflation
  • 1 dollar = 4 trillion German marks
  • German middle class = destroyed
  • German people felt let down
  • Great Depression
  • US depression had international implications
  • Hawley Smoot Tariff
  • Doubt / fear / uncertainty
  • Opportunity for new leadership
  • Fascism
  • One leader / one party
  • Condemned democracy
  • Glorified war
  • State supported capitalism
  • Aggressive nationalism
  • Media censorship
  • Nazism is Fascism (but not the other way around)
  • Mussolini’s Italy
  • Italy felt betrayed by the Treaty of Versailles
  • Communist fear in Italy
  • King Victor Emmanuel III named Benito Mussolini prime minister in 1922
  • All political parties were outlawed
  • “Mussolini is Always Right”
  • Corporate Economy
  • Capitalists / workers must be forced to cooperate for the good of the state
  • 22 state corporations are organized
  • Outlawed strikes, set wages and prices
  • Combination of private ownership and state control
  • The Lateran Accord
  • Rome / Vatican
  • Pope Pius XII
  • Italy recognized as legitimate state
  • Vatican city recognized as an independent state ruled by the pope
  • Conclusion
  • Fascist governments rose in Europe in the 1920s and 30s out of a popular need for strong leadership and direction.
  • Lenin and the NEP
  • NEP designed to correct the poor economy following the Russian Civil War
  • “temporary compromise” with capitalism
  • Small business privatized
  • Agricultural free markets
  • Oil, steel and other large industries still nationalized
  • NEP was a huge success
  • Russian economy returned to pre-WWI levels
  • Stalin v. Trotsky
  • Lenin dies in 1924
  • Trotsky second most popular Bolshevik
  • Believed communism should expand beyond Russia’s borders
  • Global revolution would secure Russia’s own communist revolution
  • Stalin believed in focusing on establishing communism in Russia first
  • Stalin expelled Trotsky from the party and by 1927 was the undisputed leader of Russia
  • The Five – Year Plans
  • End the NEP
  • Government makes all economic decisions (Gosplan)
  • Focus on the development of heavy industries
  • Collectivize agriculture
  • By 1920 the Soviet Union trailed only Germany and the US in industrial productivity
  • Opposition came from the conservative farmers
  • “Kulaks”
  • Stalin ordered all Kulaks executed and or deported to forced labor camps
  • The Great Terror
  • Stalin was worse than your most autocratic tsar
  • Eliminated old Bolsheviks
  • Expanded to include intellectuals, army officers, party members, ordinary citizens
  • At least 8 million arrested.
  • Most died in forced labor camps called “gulags”
  • ComparisonsReign of TerrorGreat TerrorOrdered by Joseph StalinPurged Old Bolsheviks and others who threatened Stalin’s powerJustified by claiming Trotsky and others were out to get StalinUsed executions and imprisonment to terrorize the nationEnded when all rivals to Stalin had been eliminatedCreated a new communist party that was totally loyal to Stalin
  • Ordered by Maximilien Robespierre
  • Intended to save the Revolution from internal and external enemies
  • Justified by the goal of creating a “republic of virtue”
  • Eliminated political rivals
  • Used public executions to terrorize the nation
  • Ended with Robespierre’s arrest and execution
  • Dawes Plan
  • 1923
  • Loans to Germany to reestablish a sound German currency and reduce reparation payments.
  • Successfully ended inflation in Germany at the time
  • The Locarno Pact
  • France, Germany, England, Italy and Belgium
  • Guaranteed borders b/w France and Germany
  • Gave the appearance that Franco – German relations were positive and peaceful
  • Kellogg – Briand Pact, 1928
  • 62 countries
  • USA
  • “to renounce war as an instrument of national policy”
  • At the time it looked like the world was safe
  • Tehran Conference
  • 1943
  • Big 3 met in Iran to discuss the opening of a second front in western Europe
  • This meeting would eventually lead to the development of Operation Overlord “D-Day”
  • Yalta Conference
  • 1945
  • Soviets agreed to help the US with Japan after the defeat of Germany
  • Soviets would get northern Korea, parts of Manchuria and other territories lost during the Russo – Japanese War of 1905
  • France is designated as an allied occupier
  • Germany would be carved up into 4 occupation zones
  • Liberated governments after the war would be allowed free elections “self – determination”
  • UN is discussed
  • Potsdam Conference
  • Stalin, Truman, Atlee
  • Promote demilitarization, denazification, and democratization.
  • USSR goes back on its pledge to allow free elections in Eastern Europe
  • US goes back on its pledge to have the USSR involved in Japan’s defeat
  • Beginning of the Cold War as US / Soviet relations dissolve QUICKLY.
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