Introduction Chapter 2

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  REVIEW AND LITERATURE This chapter briefly describes about seminal past work in the development and implementationof USB Utility Tool. 2.1 Background Study Universal Serial Bus is a standard interface for connecting peripheral devices to a host computer.The USB system was srcinally devised by a group of companies including Compaq, DigitalEquipment, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, and Northern Telecom to replace the existing mixedconnector system with a simpler architecture.USB was designed to replace the multitude of cables and connectors required to connect peripheral devices to a host computer. The main goal of USB was to make the addition of  peripheral devices quick and easy. All USB devices share some key characteristics to make this possible. All USB devices are self-identifying on the bus. All devices are hot-pluggable to allowfor true Plug’n’Play capability. Additionally, some devices can draw power from the USB whicheliminates the need for extra power adapters.To ensure maximum interoperability the USB standard defines all aspects of the USB systemfrom the physical layer(mechanical and electrical) all the way up to the software layer. The USBstandard is maintained and enforced by the USB Implementers Forum (USB-IF). USB devicesmust pass a USB-IF compliance test in order to be considered in compliance and to be able touse the USB logo.USB 1.0 was first introduced in 1996, but was not adopted widely until 1998 with USB 1.1. In2000, USB 2.0 was released and has since become the de facto standard for connecting devicesto a computers and beyond. In 2008, the USB specification was expanded with USB 3.0, alsoknown as SuperSpeed USB. USB 3.0 represents a significant change in the underlying operationof USB. To simplify the experience for the user, USB 3.0 has been designed to be plug-n-play backwards compatible with USB 2.0.USB 3.0 specification include a number of significant changes including: ã Higher data transfer rate (up to 5Gbps). Department of Information Technology, College of Technology, Pantnagar  4 Chapter 2    Review and Literature ã Increased bus power and current draw. ã Improved power management ã Full duplex data communications ã Link Training and Status State Machine (LTSSM) ã Interrupt driven, instead of polling ã Streaming interface for more efficient data transfers 2.2 .NET Framework  The .NET Framework (pronounced dot net) is a software framework developed by Microsoft thatruns primarily on Microsoft Windows. It includes a large library and provides languageinteroperability (each language can use code written in other languages) acrossseveral programming languages. Programs written for the .NET Framework execute ina software environment (as contrasted to hardware environment), known as the CommonLanguage Runtime (CLR), an application virtual machine that provides important services suchas security, memory management, and exception handling. The class library and the CLR together constitute the .NET Framework.The .NET Framework's Base Class Library provides user interface, data access, databaseconnectivity, cryptography, web application development, numeric algorithms, and network communications. Programmers produce software by combining their own source code withthe .NET Framework and other libraries. The .NET Framework is intended to be used by mostnew applications created for the Windows platform. Microsoft also produces a popular integrateddevelopment environment largely for .NET software called Visual Studio. 2.2.1 Design Feature Interoperability Department of Information Technology, College of Technology, Pantnagar  5    Review and Literature Because computer systems commonly require interaction between newer and older applications, the .NET Framework provides means to access functionality implementedin programs that execute outside the .NET environment. Access to COM components is provided in the System.Runtime.InteropServices and System.EnterpriseServicesnamespaces of the framework; access to other functionality is provided usingthe P/Invoke feature. Common Language Runtime Engine The Common Language Runtime (CLR) is the execution engine of the .NET Framework.All .NET programs execute under the supervision of the CLR, guaranteeing certain properties and behaviors in the areas of memory management, security, and exceptionhandling. Language Independence The .NET Framework introduces a Common Type System, or CTS. TheCTS specification defines all possible datatypes and programming constructs supported by the CLR and how they may or may not interact with each other conforming tothe Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) specification. Because of this feature, the.NET Framework supports the exchange of types and object instances between librariesand applications written using any conforming .NET language. Base Class Library The Base Class Library (BCL), part of the Framework Class Library (FCL), is a libraryof functionality available to all languages using the .NET Framework. The BCL providesclasses that encapsulate a number of common functions, including file reading andwriting, graphic rendering, database interaction, XML document manipulation, and so on.  Simplified Deployment Department of Information Technology, College of Technology, Pantnagar  6    Review and Literature The .NET Framework includes design features and tools which help managethe installation of computer software to ensure it does not interfere with previouslyinstalled software, and it conforms to security requirements. Security The design is meant to address some of the vulnerabilities, such as buffer overflows,which have been exploited by malicious software. Additionally, .NET provides acommon security model for all applications.  Portability While Microsoft has never implemented the full framework on any system exceptMicrosoft Windows, the framework is engineered to be platform agnostic, and cross- platform implementations are available for other operating systems (see Silverlight andthe Alternative implementations section below). Microsoft submitted the specificationsfor the Common Language Infrastructure (which includes the core classlibraries, Common Type System, and the Common Intermediate Language)the C# language, and the C++/CLI language to both ECMA and the ISO, making themavailable as official standards. This makes it possible for third parties to createcompatible implementations of the framework and its languages on other platforms. Department of Information Technology, College of Technology, Pantnagar  7
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