James II of England

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  James II of EnglandFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJames II redirects here. For other uses, see James II (disambiguation).James II and VIIJames II by eter !ely. pgortrait by eter !ely#ing of England, $cotland and Ireland (more...)%eign& February '& '' *ecember '& � +oronation- pril '&redecessor+harles II$uccessorsWilliam III / II and 0ary II1orn'2 3ctober '&--(4.$. 2 3ctober '&--)$t. James5s alace, !ondon*ied'& $eptember '67' (aged &6)8'9 (4.$.)+hteau de $aint:;ermain:en:!aye, France � 1urial+hurch of the English 1enedictines, aris89$pousenne <yde (m. '&&7= d. '&6')0ary of 0odena (m. '&6-)Issuemore...0ary II of Englandnne, >ueen of ;reat 1ritainJames Francis Ed?ard $tuart!ouisa 0aria @eresa $tuart<enrietta FitAJamesJames FitAJames, 'st *uke of 1er?ick<enry FitAJames<ouse$tuartFather+harles I0other<enrietta 0aria of France%eligion%oman +atholicpreB. +hurch of England$ignatureJames II and VII5s signatureJames II and VII ('2 3ctober '&--3.$. '& $eptember '67'8'9) ?as #ing of England � and Ireland as James II and #ing of $cotland as James VII,8-9 from & February '& until he ?as deposed in the ;lorious %eBolution of '&. <e ?as the last %oman +atholic monarch of England, $cotland and Ireland.@he second surBiBing son of +harles I, he ascended the throne upon the death of hisbrother, +harles II. 0embers of 1ritain5s rotestant political elite increasingly suspected him of being pro:French and pro:+atholic and of haBing designs on becoming an absolute monarch. When he produced a +atholic heir, a son called James Francis Ed?ard, leading nobles called on his rotestant son:in:la? and nephe? William III of 3range to land an inBasion army from the *utch %epublic, ?hich he did in the ;lorious %eBolution of '&. James fled England (and thus ?as held to haBe abdicated).829 <e ?as replaced by his eldest, rotestant daughter 0ary II and her husband, William III. James made one serious attempt to recoBer his cro?ns fromWilliam and 0ary ?hen he landed in Ireland in '&C. fter the defeat of the Jacobite forces by the Williamites at the 1attle of the 1oyne in July '&C7, James returned to France. <e liBed out the rest of his life as a pretender at a court sponsored by his cousin and ally, #ing !ouis DIV.James is best kno?n for his struggles ?ith the English arliament and his attempts to create religious liberty for English %oman +atholics and rotestant nonconformists, against the ?ishes of the nglican establishment. @his tension madeJames5s four:year reign a struggle for supremacy bet?een the English arliament and  the +ro?n, resulting in his deposition, the passage of the 1ill of %ights, and the accession of his daughter and her husband as ueen and king.+ontents 8hide9 'Early life'.'1irth'.+iBil War'.-Eile in France%estoration.'First marriage.0ilitary and political offices.-+onBersion to %oman +atholicism and second marriage.2Eclusion +risis.%eturn to faBour-%eign-.'ccession to the throne-.@?o rebellions-.-%eligious liberty and the dispensing po?er2;lorious %eBolution!ater years.'War in Ireland.%eturn to eile and death&$uccession6<istoriography@itles, styles, honours, and arms.'@itles and styles.<onours.-rmsCIssue'7ncestry''4otes'%eferences'-Further reading'2Eternal linksEarly life8edit91irth8edit9James ?ith his father, +harles I, by $ir eter !ely, '&26James, the second surBiBing son of #ing +harles I and his ?ife, <enrietta 0aria of France, ?as born at $t. James5s alace in !ondon on '2 3ctober '&--.89 !ater that same year, he ?as baptised by William !aud, the nglican rchbishop of +anterbury.8&9 <e ?as educated by priBate tutors, along ?ith his brother, the future #ing +harles II, and the t?o sons of the *uke of 1uckingham, ;eorge and Francis Villiers.869 t the age of three, James ?as appointed !ord <igh dmiral= the position ?as initially honorary, but ?ould become a substantiBe office after the %estoration, ?hen James ?as an adult.89<e ?as designated *uke of Gork at birth,8C9 inBested ?ith the 3rder of the ;arter in '&2,8'79 and formally created *uke of Gork in January '&22.8&98C9+iBil War8edit9@he #ing5s disputes ?ith the English arliament gre? into the English +iBil War. James accompanied his father at the 1attle of Edgehill, ?here he narro?ly escaped capture by the arliamentary army.8''9 <e subseuently stayed in 3ford, the chief %oyalist stronghold,8'9 ?here he ?as made a 0.. by the HniBersity on ' 4oBember '&2 and serBed as colonel of a Bolunteer regiment of foot.8'-9 When the city surrendered after the siege of 3ford in '&2&, arliamentary leaders ordered the *uke of Gork to be confined in $t. James5s alace.8'29 *isguised as a ?oman,8'9 heescaped from the alace in '&2 ?ith the help of Joseph 1ampfield, and crossed the  4orth $ea to @he <ague.8'&9When +harles I ?as eecuted by the rebels in '&2C, monarchists proclaimed James5s older brother king as +harles II of England.8'69 +harles II ?as recognised as king by the arliament of $cotland and the arliament of Ireland, and ?as cro?ned #ing of $cotland at $cone in '&'. lthough he ?as proclaimed #ing in Jersey, +harles ?as unable to secure the cro?n of England and conseuently fled to France and eile.8'69Eile in France8edit9@urenne, James5s commander in France!ike his brother, James sought refuge in France, serBing in the French army under @urenne against the Fronde, and later against their $panish allies.8'9 In the French army James had his first true eperience of battle ?here, according to one obserBer, he Bentures himself and chargeth gallantly ?here anything is to be done.8'9 @urenne5s faBour led to James being giBen command of a captured Irish regimentin *ecember '&, and being appointed !ieutenant:;eneral in '&2.8'9In the meantime, +harles ?as attempting to reclaim his throne, but France, althoughhosting the eiles, had allied itself ?ith 3liBer +rom?ell. In '&&, +harles turnedinstead to $pain an enemy of France for support, and an alliance ?as made. In � � conseuence, James ?as epelled from France and forced to leaBe @urenne5s army.8'C9James uarrelled ?ith his brother oBer the diplomatic choice of $pain oBer France. Eiled and poor, there ?as little that either +harles or James could do about the ?ider political situation, and James ultimately traBelled to 1ruges and (along ?ithhis younger brother, <enry) oined the $panish army under !ouis, rince of +ond in � Flanders, ?here he ?as giBen command as +aptain:;eneral of si regiments of 1ritishBolunteers8'9 and fought against his former French comrades at the 1attle of the *unes.879*uring his serBice in the $panish army, James became friendly ?ith t?o Irish +atholic brothers in the %oyalist entourage, eter and %ichard @albot, and became some?hat estranged from his brother5s nglican adBisers.8'9 In '&C, the French and $panish made peace. James, doubtful of his brother5s chances of regaining the throne, considered taking a $panish offer to be an admiral in their naBy.89 Hltimately, he declined the position= by the net year the situation in England hadchanged, and +harles II ?as proclaimed #ing.8-9%estoration8edit9First marriage8edit9James and nne <yde in the '&&7s, by $ir eter !elyfter %ichard +rom?ell5s resignation as !ord rotector in '&C and the subseuent collapse of the +ommon?ealth in '&&7, +harles II ?as restored to the English throne. lthough James ?as the heir presumptiBe, it seemed unlikely that he ?ould inherit the +ro?n, as +harles ?as still a young man capable of fathering children.829 3n -' *ecember '&&7, follo?ing his brother5s restoration, James ?as created *uke of lbany in $cotland, to go along ?ith his English title, *uke of Gork.89 Hpon his return to England, James prompted an immediate controBersy by announcing his engagement to nne <yde, the daughter of +harles5s chief minister, Ed?ard <yde.8&9 In '&C, ?hile trying to seduce her, James promised he ?ould marry nne.869 nne became pregnant in '&&7, but follo?ing the %estoration and James5s return to po?er, no one at the royal court epected a prince to marry a commoner, no matter ?hat he had pledged beforehand.89 lthough nearly eBeryone, including nne5s father, urged the t?o not to marry, the couple married secretly, then ?ent through an official marriage ceremony on - $eptember '&&7 in !ondon. @heir first child, +harles, ?as born less than t?o months later, but died in infancy, as did fiBe further sons and daughters.89 3nly t?o daughters surBiBed 0ary (born -7 pril  '&&) and nne (born & February '&&).8C9 $amuel epys ?rote that James ?as fond of his children and his role as a father, and played ?ith them like an ordinary priBate father of a child, a contrast to the distant parenting common ?ith royalty at the time.8-79 James5s ?ife ?as deBoted to him and influenced many of his decisions.8-'9 EBen so, he kept mistresses, including rabella +hurchill and +atherine $edley, and ?as reputed to be the most unguarded ogler of his time.8-9 nne <yde died in '&6'.0ilitary and political offices8edit9James in the '&&7s by John %ileyfter the %estoration, James ?as confirmed as !ord <igh dmiral, an office that carried ?ith it the subsidiary appointments of ;oBernor of ortsmouth and !ord Warden of the +inue orts.8--9 James commanded the %oyal 4aBy during the $econd ('&&'&&6) and @hird nglo:*utch Wars ('&6'&62). Follo?ing the raid on the � � 0ed?ay in '&&6, James oBersa? the surBey and re:fortification of the southern coast.8-29 @he office of !ord <igh dmiral, combined ?ith his reBenue from post office and ?ine tariffs (granted him by +harles upon his restoration) gaBe James enough money to keep a siAeable court household.8-9In '&&2, +harles granted merican territory bet?een the *ela?are and +onnecticut riBers to James. Follo?ing its capture by the English the former *utch territory of4e? 4etherland and its principal port, 4e? msterdam, ?ere named the roBince and +ity of 4e? Gork in James5s honour. fter the founding, the duke gaBe part of the colony to proprietors ;eorge +arteret and John 1erkeley. Fort 3range, 27 kilometres ('7 mi) north on the <udson %iBer, ?as renamed lbany after James5s $cottish title.89 In '&-, he became the goBernor of the <udson5s 1ay +ompany, but did not take an actiBe role in its goBernance.89 James also headed the %oyal frican +ompany, a slaBe trading company.8-&9In $eptember '&&&, his brother +harles put him in charge of firefighting operationsin the ;reat Fire of !ondon, in the absence of action by !ord 0ayor @homas 1lood?orth. @his ?as not a political office, but his actions and leadership ?ere note?orthy. @he *uke of Gork hath ?on the hearts of the people ?ith his continual and indefatigable pains day and night in helping to uench the Fire, ?rote a ?itness in a letter on  $eptember.8-69
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