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   Schlabach, Gracia. 2013. “A Survey of Amish Tunebooks: Categorizing Slow Tunes by Date of Origin.”  Journal of Amish and Plain Anabaptist Studies 1(2):90-106. A Survey of Amish Tunebooks: Categorizing Slow Tunes by Date of Origin Gracia Schlabach 1  Lyndonville New Order Amish Church Abstract A survey of  Notabücher (tune books) currently used by geographically diverse Amish communities leads to the conclusion that Amish slow tunes can be placed into three categories according to date of srcin. I've dubbed these Old, Middle, and New Groups. Old Group tunes are derived from sixteenth century folk songs and Reformation era hymns. Middle Group tunes are, for the most part, based on later German chorales and New Group tunes have been adapted from early American hymn tunes. I begin this article with a brief summary of earlier research on Amish slow tunes, then give an overview of current  Notabücher  , their compilers, and layout.  Next, characteristics of each tune category are given, with musical examples. Lastly, the  Notabuch survey appears in chart form. Keywords  Ausbund  ,  Eine Unparteiische Liedersammlung  (B), Unparteiische Liedersammlung  (G), Unparteyisches Gesang-Buch ,  Notabücher  , hymn, slow tune, half-fast tune  Schlabach: Amish Tunebooks 91 Introduction Our small New Order Amish congregation in western New York sings at least three  Ausbund   songs at each church service. Like nearly all other Amish groups, we use the typical slow style, sung in unison and loaded with melismas. A solo singer leads the first syllable of each line. Thus, we perpetuate a singing style that has been transmitted aurally for more than four centuries (Yoder, et al. 1964). This distinctive style has been called Amish church music (Hohmann 1959), Amish church tunes (Wagler 1985), and the Amish singing style (Durnbaugh 1998). The term “slow tune,” which I prefer, is a direct translation of our Pennsylvania German term schloh Weis . Amish have a rich German hymn tradition using four German hymnals (Schlabach 2011) and three basic styles of singing. With few exceptions, varied groups of Amish across North America use slow tunes in worship services including wedding ceremonies, baptismal services, and communion services. Half-fast ( halb stark  ) tunes are used at slightly less formal occasions such as the parting song in church services or at Sunday school among certain Amish. Other occasions that call for half-fast tunes are viewings, wakes and funerals, and afternoon / evening singings at weddings. The term half-fast is relative, both in interpretation and practice. The term “half-slow” might be more accurate because these tunes share many characteristics of slow tunes, including being sung in unison, having a slowed tempo, and having additional connecting notes. Over time, half-fast tunes tend to take on increasing slow tune attributes. Fast tunes ( starke Weise ), borrowed from contemporary English hymnals and matched to German texts, are used at home, at school, or at young folks' singings. The English chorus, or its German translation, of a tune is often inserted between the verses. Although most Amish do not sing parts, a few use two- or even four-part harmony. Early Research on Slow Tunes  Nearly three centuries of Amish singing passed before any definitive musical research on our slow tunes took place. In the mid twentieth century, when the Amish overall attracted greater interest from the outside world, our slow tunes, especially, received a good deal of attention. Researchers listened to Amish singing and made recordings. They transcribed selected tunes and a number of them delved into the history of this unusual style (Umble 1939; Yoder 1942; Jackson 1945, 1946; Nettl 1957; Hohmann 1959). These early studies are becoming dated for several reasons. First, these researchers concentrated mostly on whether or not Amish hymn tunes still followed the tune suggestions given in the  Ausbund  ; they did not consider the broader spectrum of Amish tunes. Second, later studies explored in greater detail musicological aspects directly or indirectly related to Amish singing (Sommers 1972; Temperly 1981; Durnbaugh 1998; Riall n.d.). Most significantly, early studies were made before the widespread use of  Notabücher  , or tune books that are compiled by  92 Journal of Amish and Plain Anabaptist Studies 1(2), 2013 Amish singers to assist in learning and transmitting the tunes. Nevertheless, early studies are still useful for their descriptions of the slow tune style and rudimentary theories of its development. The availability of Amish  Notabücher   opens up a treasure trove of opportunity for the musicologist. I consider my categorization of tunes into Old, Middle, and New Groups quite  preliminary. By placing the tunes in a systematic listing by meter, I have attempted to provide a format for exploration. How many slow tunes exist? How much variation is there between communities? What is the srcin of a particular tune and how widespread is its use?  Notabücher All Amish  Notabücher   contain music for slow tunes used with  Ausbund   texts. Some communities use one of two smaller books,  Eine Unparteiische Liedersammlung  (B) and Unparteiische Liedersammlung  (G), instead of the  Ausbund  . Others use them as supplemental  books besides the  Ausbund  . Both contain  Ausbund   material (Schlabach 2011). Most  Notabücher   also include tunes, both slow and half-fast, for texts in these smaller hymn books and not in the  Ausbund  .  Notabücher   are closely connected to the Scripture registers that guide song selection in Amish services (Schlabach 2012). A booklet simply titled  Notabuch  compiled by Noah L. Hershberger, then of Holmes County, Ohio, led the way in tunebook format. It was published in 1984 and had ten printings by 2006. This book is available in two sizes, a 4 x 6 spiral bound and a smaller pocket size with staples. A translation from its German foreword says, “This book is not to be used as a rule book. Many songs are not sung exactly same from one area to the other. Each one may adapt tunes to his taste ... all for the glory of God.” In 1997,  Ausbund   and  Liedersammlung Songs with Shaped Notes  was compiled by Ben Troyer Jr. with the assistance of eleven others, and published by Carlisle Press. It covered the same greater Holmes County area tunes as Hershberger’s but used shaped notes instead of round. This book, now in its eighth printing, is 4 ¼ x 6 . Part of the acknowledgment reads, “Above all, may the Lord be glorified and His church be edified with the singing of these songs.” Schöne Alte Weisa von Ausbund und Liedersammlung  uses the same page and index formats as Carlisle's but with round notes. Jacob Yoder of Danville, Ohio, and seven other men compiled this collection of not-so-common slow and half-fast tunes in 2001. A German sentence introduces the book, “We tried to put this book together with old tunes as we had learned them.” Geauga Church Songs  is an undated booklet that says “1st edition,” but also “revised by Bill S. Farmwald, Munfordville, Kentucky.” Its size is 5 x 4 and the notes are drawn by hand. The first Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, tunebook,  Nota für das Ausbund  , was printed in 1990 using shaped notes drawn by Katie Stolzfoos, which were in a loose-leaf format earlier. The music had key signatures, and notes showed duration. This book underwent four reprints  Schlabach: Amish Tunebooks 93  before a major revision was made. The foreword of the 2011 edition, compiled by Jonas Beiler of Lebanon County, explains, “The reason of the revision was not to keep up with the times, but rather the opposite, to try and preserve the singing from an earlier generation. This time there was a large group getting together to decide on the changes. In 2005 the revised edition was  brought into print, with also some more Lieder added (see Anhang). This book is intended to be used as a guide and not as a ruler. Each person may sing as he was taught and feels is right...This  book is not intended to be used in church services.” The 2011 edition also includes  Lieder und Schriften , a scripture register. Its 5 ½ x 8 ½ format is larger than any of the Ohio tunebooks. Old Order Church Tunes for Somerset County, Pennsylvania - 1984  consists of 8 ½ x 11 loose-leaf pages in a binder. The words are handwritten. Shaped notes show timing, but there are no key signatures. The Amish of Somerset Co. use  Eine Unparteiische Liedersammlung  (B). Three tunebooks having a very similar format are  Ausbund Lieder Mit Noten  for LaGrange County, Indiana, and St. Joseph County, Michigan;  Ausbund Lieder Mit Noten  Nappanee area ; and an unnamed, undated  Notabuch revised in 1992 by Henry Yoder of Bethany, Missouri. This book includes Scripture registers for Bloomfield, Iowa; Johnson and Washington Counties, Iowa; and Arthur, Illinois. All have round notes with key signatures. All three appear to  be based on notes written earlier by Olen F. Yoder, of Middlebury, Indiana. Some material was also taken from Wacht & Leiche Lieder  , now out of print, by Willie Christner of Nappanee, Indiana. The Indiana books are 4 x 3 ½ , the other, 5 x 4 ½ . The Nappanee first edition was in 1999; Mervin S. Bontrager added songs from pages 38-52 in the second edition in 2004. The newer LaGrange County 2006 edition copyrighted by Freeman L. Yoder, Middlebury, says  No copying or printing from songs on pages 1-63 of this booklet without permission from F. L. Yoder. This request is made so there will be less confusion if there would be different “nota” books for the same area. You may make corrections in your own “nota”  books for your area…  Alles zu Gottes ehre  [all to the glory of God]. The Amish of Kalona, Iowa now have their own tunebook, Singet dem Herrn Nota Buch , new in 2013. The acknowledgments read We greatly appreciated the Ohio Nota Book with shaped notes [Carlisle] which served as a reliable pattern for many of our songs. Also to a number of brethren, in taking time to check out the notes for Johnson County accuracy… Through the willing hands and hearts of our fellow men, our Lord sends his blessings. May he alone be given praise and glory. This tunebook has only  Liedersammlung B  songs.  Notabuch  Layout  Notabuch  layout reveals key elements of the Amish slow tune. In most books, songs are

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