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Basic mountaineering course
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    BAKTAS MSU MINDANAO STATE UNIVERSITY MOUNTAINEERING SOCIETY, INC. BASIC MOUNTAINEERING COURSE: THE LEAVE NO TRACE (LNT) PRINCIPLES Page 1 of 5   BASIC MOUNTAINEERING COURSE T HE L EAVE N O T RACE P RINCIPLE   #$ %& '())*+,-$' * .+$/0 *)1/2 #,3$+' .1 *00+$'' 41/4$+/' *51(. 41/'$+6*.,1/ 17 1(+ $41'8'.$) */0 '4$/$+8 .#*. 17.$/ )1.,6*.$ #,3$'9 %& ,' */ $41:12,4*: ;+,/4,;:$ 17 :$*6,/2 */ $/6,+1/)$/. 17 #*5,.*.,1/ ,/ '(4# * 41/0,.,1/ *' .1 +$/0$+ ,. ,);1'',5:$ 71+ 7(.(+$ 15'$+6$+' .1 0,'4$+/ .#$ ;+$6,1(' ;+$'$/4$ 17 .#$ ;+*4.,.,1/$+' 17 .#$ %& )$.#101:1289 </$ ',);:$ */0 7(/0*)$/.*: *';$4. 17 %& ,'= ! $%& '() '(**$ !+ !), $%& '() '(**$ !+ %&+- #$ %$&$' ()*'+*(,$% -. ,$/&$ '- )/+$ ()*'+*(,$ !   #$%& %()%* %&* #+)#%+) !./0123456 07 +18/ 9:34484;< ã  >. #$:;' $/'(+$ '*7$.8 17 2+1(;' 1+ ,/0,6,0(*:' ã  >. ;+$;*+$' 81( .1 %& */0 ),/,),-$' +$'1(+4$ 0*)*2$ ã  >. 41/.+,5(.$' .1 *441);:,'#,/2 .+,; 21*:' '*7$:8 */0 $/?18*5:8 ã  >. ,/4+$*'$' '$:7@41/7,0$/4$ */0 1;;1+.(/,.,$' 71+ :$*+/,/2 )1+$ *51(. /*.(+$ =6>64 ?:6.642@ 20 '04@8A61 BC64 9:34484; 3 +18/ ã  >0$/.,78 */0 +$41+0 .#$ 21*:' 17 81(+ .+,; ã  >0$/.,78 .#$ '3,:: */0 *5,:,.8 17 .+,; ;*+.,4,;*/.' ã  A$:$4. 0$'.,/*.,1/' .#*. )*.4# 81(+ 21*:'B '3,::' */0 *5,:,.,$' ã  C*,/ 3/1D:$02$ 17 .#$ *+$* 81( ;:*/ .1 6,',. ã  E#11'$ $F(,;)$/. */0 4:1.#,/2 71+ 41)71+. */0 '*7$.8 ã  G6*:(*.$ 81(+ .+,; (;1/ +$.(+/ /1.$ */0 4#*/2$' 81( D,:: )*3$ /$H. .,)$ I*''$''JK %2C61 6:6.642@ 20 504@8A61< ã  D$*.#$+ ã   $++*,/ ã  L$2(:*.,1/' */0 +$'.+,4.,1/' ã  M+,6*.$ :*/0 51(/0*+,$' ã  N6$+*2$ #,3,/2 ';$$0 17 .#$ 2+1(; */0 */.,4,;*.$0 7110 41/'();.,1/ I:$7.16$+' 4+$*.$ D*'.$ D#,4# :$*6$' .+*4$JK ã  C+1(; ',-$ I01$' ,. )$$. +$2(:*.,1/'B .+,; ;(+;1'$ */0 .#$ %& OK ã  N:: %& M+,/4,;:$' D63: 9:34484; ã  >. +$0(4$' .+*'# ã  >. +$0(4$' ;*43 D$,2#. +$'(:.,/2 ,/ 7*'.$+ #,3,/2 .,)$' */0 :$'' 7*.,2($ ã  L$0(4$0 0$;$/0$/4$ (;1/ 4*);7,+$' 71+ 4113,/2 ã  <;. 71+ 1/$@;1. )$*:'B +$F(,+$' ),/,)*: 4113,/2 (.$/',:'B 7($: */0 4113,/2 .,)$ ã  <;. 71+ :,2#. D$,2#. '/*43'B ,. +$F(,+$' ),/,)() 17 ;*43,/2 */0 ;+$;*+*.,1/ .,)$    BAKTAS MSU MINDANAO STATE UNIVERSITY MOUNTAINEERING SOCIETY, INC. BASIC MOUNTAINEERING COURSE: THE LEAVE NO TRACE (LNT) PRINCIPLES Page 2 of 5   BASIC MOUNTAINEERING COURSE ã  L$)16$0 7110 7+1) 41))$+4,*: ;*43*2,/2B ;:*4$ ,. ,/ P,;:14' 1+ '$*:*5:$ 5*2' ,   -+%.)$ %&* /%0# 1& *2+%3$) 42+5%/)4 LNQG%%>&C ã  R/0$+'.*/0 S<T .1 .+*6$: .1 ),/,),-$ ,);*4.' */0 *61,0 0*)*2$ .1 .#$ $/6,+1/)$/. ã   +*6$: 0*)*2$ 144(+ D#$/ '(+7*4$ 6$2$.*.,1/ *+$ .+*);:$0 5$81/0 +$416$+8 I,. D,:: +$'(:. .1 5*++$/ *+$*B 5*++$/ *+$* *:'1 +$'(:.' .1 '1,: $+1',1/U'$$ .#$ $77$4.JK ã  E1/4$/.+*.$ *4.,6,.,$' */0 .+*6$:' 1/ $H,'.,/2 .+*,:' */0 41/'.+(4.$0 .+*,:' I(.,:,-$ .#$ 0$',2/*.$0 .+*,:B 01 /1. 4+$*.$ 1/$JK ã  N61,0 )*3,/2 /$D +1(.$' 1+ )(:.,;:$ .+*,:'B ,. D,:: 0$6$:1; '4*+ .1 .#$ :*/0'4*;$ ã  G/41(+*2$ .1 '.*8 D,.#,/ .#$ D,0.# 17 .#$ .+*,: ã  M+16,0$ ';*4$ 71+ #,3$+' ,7 .*3,/2 5+$*3' *:1/2 .+*,: ã  N61,0 .+*6$:,/2 1/ * :*+2$ 2+1(; ',-$ ã  A.$; 1/ * 0(+*5:$ '(+7*4$ I+143B '*/0 */0 2+*6$:K ã  A$:$4. */ *+$* D,.# ';*+'$ 6$2$.*.,1/ I:,3$ 0+8 2+*''$'K ã  N61,0 0$:,4*.$ */0 6(:/$+*5:$ 6$2$.*.,1/ ã  N61,0 V11. .+*77,4 ã  T#$/ 6$/.(+,/2 */ 177@.+*,:B ';+$*0 1(. .1 *61,0 4+$*.,/2 ;*.#' .#*. $/41(+*2$ 1.#$+' .1 71::1D ENWM>&C ã  E*); 1/ 0(+*5:$ '(+7*4$' ã  A$:$4. */ *;;+1;+,*.$ 4*);',.$ ã  E*);',.$ '#1(:0 5$ 5*'$0 1/ ,/71+)*.,1/ *51(. .#$ :$6$: */0 .8;$ 17 ('$ ,/ .#$ *+$*B .#$ 7+*2,:,.8 17 6$2$.*.,1/ */0 '1,:B .#$ :,3$:,#110 17 D,:0:,7$ 0,'.(+5*/4$B */ *''$'')$/. 17 .#$ ;+$6,1(' ,);*4.' ã  N61,0 4*);,/2 4:1'$ .1 D*.$+ */0 .+*,:' ã  A$:$4. * ',.$ D#,4# ,' /1. 6,',5:$ .1 1.#$+' ã  >. ,' 5$'. .1 4*); 1/ ',.$' .#*. *+$ '1 #,2#:8 ,);*4.$0 .#*. 7(+.#$+ ('$ D,:: 4*('$ /1 /1.,4$*5:$ ,);*4.9 ã   $/.'B .+*77,4 +1(.$' */0 3,.4#$/ *+$*' '#1(:0 5$ 41/4$/.+*.$0 1/ *:+$*08 ,);*4.$0 *+$*' I.#$ ;1,/. ,'B 41/7,/$ .#$ ,);*4. .1 *:+$*08 ('$0 *+$* .1 *61,0 $/:*+2,/2 .#$ *+$* 17 0,'.(+5*/4$K ã  %$*6$ /1 .+*4$ D#$/ :$*6,/2 .#$ 4*); ã  E*);,/2 1/ (/0,'.(+5$0 I;+,'.,/$K *+$*' 1/:8 ,7 81( *+$ 41)),..$0 .1 .#$ %& .$4#/,F($' ã  A;+$*0 1(. .$/.' */0 3,.4#$/ *+$*' 1/ 0(+*5:$ '(+7*4$' ã  N61,0 +$;$.,.,6$ .+*77,4 +1(.$' I.#$ ;1,/. ,'B .1 ),/,),-$ .#$ /()5$+ 17 .,)$' */8 ;*+. 17 .#$ ',.$ ,' .+*);:$0K ã  T$*+ '17. '#1$' *+1(/0 4*); ã  T*.4# D#$+$ 81( D*:3 .1 *61,0 4+('#,/2 6$2$.*.,1/ */0 .*3$ *:.$+/*.$ ;*.#' .1 D*.$+ W,/,),-$ .#$ /()5$+ 17 .+,;' .1 D*.$+ 58 4*++8,/2 D*.$+ 41/.*,/$+' ã  E*); *D*8 7+1) .#$ D*.$+ '1(+4$ X+$*3,/2 4*); ã   *3$ .,)$ .1 /*.(+*:,-$ .#$ ',.$9 ã  E16$+ '4(77$0 *+$*' D,.# /*.,6$ )*.$+,*:'B 5+('#,/2 1(.    BAKTAS MSU MINDANAO STATE UNIVERSITY MOUNTAINEERING SOCIETY, INC. BASIC MOUNTAINEERING COURSE: THE LEAVE NO TRACE (LNT) PRINCIPLES Page 3 of 5   BASIC MOUNTAINEERING COURSE 711.;+,/.'B +*3$ )*..$0 2+*''8 *+$*'B #$:; .#$ ',.$ .1 +$416$+ */0 )*3$ ,. :$'' 156,1(' *' * 4*);',.$9 ã  S,0$ */8 ,/0,4*.,1/ D#$+$ 81( 4*);$0 ã  E113,/2 *+$*'B .$/.' */0 5*43;*43' '#1(:0 5$ :14*.$0 1/ +143B '*/0 1+ 2+*6$: ã  &$6$+ '4+*;$ *D*8 1+ 4:$*/ ',.$' 17 1+2*/,4 :,..$+ :,3$ :$*6$' I,. #$:;' .1 4('#,1/ .+*);:,/2 71+4$'B */0 +$0(4$0 .#$ $+1',6$ 71+4$' 17 +*,/JK ã  W,/,),-$ .#$ +$)16*: 17 +143' */0 2+*6$: ã  %,),. 81(+ '.*8 .1 /1 )1+$ .#*/ .D1 /,2#.' ,/ ?('. 1/$ *+$* 6   *74#14) 15 8%4-) #+1#)+$9 ã  M*43 ,. ,/B ;*43 ,. 1(. ã  >/';$4. 81(+ 4*);',.$ 71+ .+*'# 1+ ';,::$0 7110 ã  N44$;. .#$ 4#*::$/2$ 17 ;*43,/2 1(. *:: .+*'#B :$7.16$+ 7110 */0 :,..$+' ã  R'$ 5,10$2+*0*5:$ '1*; YZZ 7$$. 7+1) D*.$+ '1(+4$ ã  [,';1'$ #()*/ D*'.$ ;+1;$+:8 .1 *61,0 .#$ /$2*.,6$ ,);:,4*.,1/' 17 '1)$1/$ $:'$ 7,/0,/2 ,.B ),/,),-$ .#$ ;1'',5,:,.8 17 ';+$*0,/2 0,'$*'$B )*H,),-$ .#$ +*.$ 17 0$41);1',.,1/ ã  X(++8 #()*/ 7$4$' *' .#$ )1'. $77$4.,6$ )$.#10 17 0,';1',/2 #()*/ D*'.$ ã  X(++8 ,. 7*+ *D*8 7+1) D*.$+ '1(+4$' */0 1.#$+ 7+$F($/.:8 ('$0 ;:*4$' ã  W*3$ 4*.#1:$' YZZ 7$$. *D*8 7+1) D*.$+B .+*,:' */0 4*); ã  A$:$4. */ ,/41/';,4(1(' ',.$ D#$+$ .#$ 1.#$+ ;$1;:$ D,:: (/:,3$:8 .1 D*:3 1+ 4*);9 ã  R'$ * .+1D$: .1 0,2 \@] ,/4#$' 0$$;B ^@\ ,/4#$' 0,*)$.$+ 4*.#1:$ ã  >. )('. 5$ 416$+$0 */0 0,'2(,'$0 D,.# /*.(+*: )*.$+,*:' D#$/ 7,/,'#$0 ã   1,:$. ;*;$+' )('. 5$ ('$0 ';*+,/2:8B */0 0,';1'$0 ;+1;$+:8B ,. 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