Lecture 5 Seismic Velocites

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  Subject 5: The Seismic Velocity  Lecturer: Dr. Bakhtiar Q. Aziz  Objective : The student will learn to differentiate between different types of seismic velocity and how they find these types of velocities indirectly from reflection arrival time (slope of Time-Distance curve) or directly from either well shooting or up-hole survey. In addition, they get idea about how suitable velocity is selected for certain subsurface situation. Scientific contents 1- Factors effecting seismic velocity. 2- Methods of computing seismic velocities. 3- Different types of seismic velocities. References   1.   An introduction to applied and environmental geophysics, 1997, Reynolds, J. M. 2.   Applied and environmental geophysics, 1999, Sharma,V.,P. 3.   Introduction to geophysical prospecting, 1988, Durbin, M. B.   4.   www.Geophysics.net  5.   http://pangea.stanford.edu/courses/gp262/Notes/8.SeismicVelocity.pdf    The Seismic Velocity: There are several factors have great effect on the seismic velocity 1- Density and elastic properties of the rocks 2- Porosity ( φ )   Φ  =  Volume of rocks  Volume of pores Travel time through porous rock= Travel time through rock material + Travel time through fluid t = t1 + t2 t1 =  Vf Φ  t2 =  Vm 1- Φ     t1, Vf t2, Vm t One Unit t =  Vf Φ   +  Vm 1- Φ   …….. Time Average equation 3- Depth of burial and Geological age  V Z 1/6  * T 1/6    V = K * Z 1/6  * T 1/6   Pores / Fluid Rock Matrix  4- Fluid content and Fluid pressure Sandstone filled with water  V p  = 4500 m/Sec   Sandstone filled with Oil  V p  = 4100 m/Sec   Density vs Water Saturation - Porosity = 33% Densities: Oil = 0.8 Gas = 0.001 1.71.81.922.12.200.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.91 Water Saturation       D    e    n    s      i      t    y OilGas Oil Case Gas Case 100% Water   100% Oil or Gas  5- Type of lithology Sandstone , V p  = 4500 m/Sec Limestone , V p  = 5500 m/Sec Clay , V p  = 2500 m/Sec Gypsum , V p  = 7000 m/Sec 6- Type of waves  V p  = 1.7 V s  and V R   = 0.9 V s
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