Mesopotamian Mesopotamian Influences on the Old Persian Royal Ideology and Religion During the Achaemenid PerioInfluences on the Old Persian Royal Ideology and Religion During the Achaemenid Period

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Mesopotamian Influences on the Old Persian Royal Ideology and Religion During the Achaemenid Perio
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  UNIVERSITY OF TARTU FACULTY OF THEOLOGY ANDREAS JOHANDI MESOPOTAMIAN INFLUENCES ON THE OLD PERSIAN ROYAL IDEOLOGY AND RELIGION DURING THE ACHAEMENID PERIOD MASTER’S THESIS  Supervisors VLADIMIR SAZONOV, PhD PEETER ESPAK, PhD TARTU 2012    Table of Contents  Abbreviations ............................................................................................................................. 4   Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 6   1   The Main Characteristics of Mesopotamian Royal Ideology ........................................... 13   1.1   Royal Ideology in Mesopotamia during the Pre-historic Period ............................... 13   1.2   Royal Ideology in Mesopotamia during the Early Dynastic period (ca. 2900/2800-2334) 15   1.3   Royal Ideology in Mesopotamia during the Akkadian and Gutian periods (ca.2334-2112) 19   1.4   Royal Ideology in Mesopotamia during the Ur III and Isin-Larsa periods ............... 21   1.4.1   The Ur III period (ca. 2112-2004) ...................................................................... 21   1.4.2   The Isin-Larsa Period (ca. 2000-1800) .............................................................. 23   1.5   Royal Ideology in Mesopotamia during the Old Babylonian and Old Assyrian Periods .................................................................................................................................. 23   1.5.1   The Old Babylonian Period (1894-1595) ........................................................... 24   1.5.2   The Old Assyrian Period (ca. 2000-1600/1500) ................................................ 25   1.6   Royal Ideology in Mesopotamia during the Middle Babylonian and Middle Assyrian  periods .................................................................................................................................. 26   1.6.1   The Middle Babylonian Period (1595-1155) ..................................................... 26   1.6.2   The Middle Assyrian Period (ca. 1400-1050) .................................................... 28   1.7   Royal Ideology in Mesopotamia during the Neo-Assyrian and Late Babylonian Periods .................................................................................................................................. 29   1.7.1   The Neo-Assyrian Period (934-610) .................................................................. 29   1.7.2   The Late Babylonian Period (ca. 900-539) ........................................................ 30   2   The Main Characteristics of Mesopotamian Religion ...................................................... 32   2.1   Archaic Mesopotamian Religion ............................................................................... 33   2.2   Mesopotamian Religion during the Early Dynastic Period (ca. 2900/2800-2334) ... 35   2.3   Mesopotamian Religion during the Akkadian Period (ca. 2334-2154) ..................... 37   2.4   Mesopotamian Religion during the Ur III and Isin  –  Larsa periods ............................ 38   2.4.1   The Ur III Period (ca. 2112-2004) ..................................................................... 38   2.4.2   The Isin-Larsa Period (ca. 2000-1800) .............................................................. 40   2.5   Mesopotamian Religion during the Old Babylonian and Old Assyrian periods ....... 41   2.5.1   The Old Babylonian Period (1894-1595) ........................................................... 41    2.5.2   The Old Assyrian Period (ca. 2000-1600/1500) ................................................ 42   2.6   Mesopotamian Religion during the Middle Babylonian and Middle Assyrian periods 43   2.6.1   The Middle Babylonian Period (1595-1155) ..................................................... 43   2.6.2   The Middle Assyrian Period (ca. 1400-1050) .................................................... 43   2.7   Mesopotamian Religion during the Late Babylonian and Neo-Assyrian periods ..... 44   2.7.1   The Late Babylonian Period (ca.900-539) ......................................................... 44   2.7.2   The Neo-Assyrian period (934-610) .................................................................. 46   3   Mesopotamian Influences on the Old Persian Royal Ideology and Religion .................. 48   3.1   Traces of Mesopotamian Influences on the Old Persian Royal Ideology and Religion during the pre-Achaemenid Period ...................................................................................... 48   3.2   Mesopotamian Influences on the Old Persian Royal Ideology and Religion during the Achaemenid Period (558-330) ....................................................................................... 55   3.2.1   The Achaemenid Royal Inscriptions .................................................................. 55   3.2.1.1   The Cyrus Cylinder ..................................................................................... 56   3.2.1.2   The Inscription of Darius at Behistun (DB) ................................................ 61   3.2.1.3   The Inscription of Artaxerxes II at Susa A (A 2 Sa) ..................................... 65   Conclusions .............................................................................................................................. 69   Bibliography ............................................................................................................................. 75   Kokkuvõte  ................................................................................................................................ 89      Abbreviations AAMO  Acta Antiqua Mediterranea et Orientalia, Ugarit-Verlag. ABC  A. K. Grayson, Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles, Texts from Cuneiform Sources, Volume V, Locust Valley, New York: J. J. Augustin Publisher, 1975. AOAT   Alter Orient und Altes Testament, Veröffentlichungen zur Kultur und Geschichte des Alten Orients und des Alten Testaments. Kevelaer/Neukirchen- Vluyn, Münster, 1969ff.   AoF Altorientalische Forschungen, Schriften zur Geschichte und Kultur des Alten Orients, Berlin 1974 ff. ATU 7  Archaische Texte aus Uruk: vol. 7, R. Englund/H. Nissen, Archaische Verwaltungstexte aus Uruk: Die Heidelberger Sammlung, 2001. BIWA  R. Borger, Beit räge zum Inschriftenwerk Assurbanipals, Wiesbaden 1996. CAH  The Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge, England, 1970 ff.3. CH  Codex Hammurabi. CII I/1  R. Schmitt, The Bisitun Inscriptions of Darius the Great: Old Persian text. Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum I/1, 1, School of Oriental and African Studies, 1991. DB  Inscription of Darius I at Behistun. EA  The El-Amarna Letters, ed. by W. Moran, 1992. FAOS 5, II  H. Steible, H. Behrens, Die altsumerische Bau- und Weihinschriften, Teil II, Kommentar zu den Insch riften aus Lagaš, Inschriften außerhalb von Lagaš, FAOS 5/I -II., Freiburger Altorientalische Studien 5, Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 1982. JAOS  Journal of the American Oriental Society JCS  Journal of Cuneiform Studies. New Haven, Baltimore, 1947 ff. JNES  Journal of Near Eastern Studies. Chicago, 1942ff.
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