Negotiation and Conducting Meetings

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  NEGOTIATION  - Ayushi Syal  BJMC 2ANegotiation  is a dialogue intended to resolve disputes, to produce an agreement upon courses of action, to bargain for individual or collective advantage, or to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests. It is the primary method of alternative dispute resolution. Negotiation occurs in business, non-profit organizations, government branches, legal  proceedings, among nations and in personal situations such as marriage, divorce,  parenting, and everyday life. The study of the subject is called  negotiation theory . Those who work in negotiation professionally are called negotiators . rofessional negotiators are often specialized, such as union negotiators , leverage buyout negotiators ,  peace negotiators , hostage negotiators , or may work under other titles, such as diplomats, legislators or  brokers. Approaches to negotiation  Negotiation typically manifests itself with a trained negotiator acting on behalf of a  particular organization or position. It can be compared to mediation where a disinterested third party listens to each side!s arguments and attempts to help craft an agreement  between the parties. It is also related to arbitration which, as with a legal proceeding, both sides make an argument as to the merits of their case and then the arbitrator decides the outcome for both parties. Negotiation involves three basic elements#  process , behavior   and  substance . The process refers to how the parties negotiate# the conte$t of the negotiations, the parties to the negotiations, the tactics used by the parties, and the se%uence and stages in which all of these play out. &ehavior refers to the relationships among these parties, the communication between them and the styles they adopt. The substance refers to what the  parties negotiate over# the agenda, the issues 'positions and - more helpfully - interests(, the options, and the agreement's( reached at the end.)killed negotiators may use a variety of tactics ranging from negotiation hypnosis, to a straight forward presentation of demands or setting of preconditions to more deceptive approaches such as cherry picking. Intimidation and salami tactics may also play a part in swaying the outcome of negotiations.*nother negotiation tactic is bad guy+good guy. &ad guy+good guy tactic is when one negotiator acts as a bad guy by using anger and threats. The other negotiator acts as a good guy by being considerate and understanding. The good guy blames the bad guy for all the difficulties while trying to get concessions and agreement from the opponent.  Other Negotiation Styles )hell identified five styles+responses to negotiation. Individuals can often have strong dispositions towards numerous styles the style used during a negotiation depends on the conte$t and the interests of the other party, among other factors. In addition, styles can change over time.. Accommoating # Individuals who enjoy solving the other party!s problems and  preserving personal relationships. *ccommodators are sensitive to the emotional states, body language, and verbal signals of the other parties. They can, however, feel taken advantage of in situations when the other party places little emphasis on the relationship. . A!oiing # Individuals who do not like to negotiate and don!t do it unless warranted. /hen negotiating, avoiders tend to defer and dodge the confrontational aspects of negotiating however, they may be perceived as tactful and diplomatic. 0. Colla orating # Individuals who enjoy negotiations that involve solving tough  problems in creative ways. 1ollaborators are good at using negotiations to understand the concerns and interests of the other parties. They can, however, create problems by transforming simple situations into more comple$ ones. 2. Competing # Individuals who enjoy negotiations because they present an opportunity to win something. 1ompetitive negotiators have strong instincts for all aspects of negotiating and are often strategic. &ecause their style can dominate the bargaining process, competitive negotiators often neglect the importance of relationships. 3. Compromising # Individuals who are eager to close the deal by doing what is fair and e%ual for all parties involved in the negotiation. 1ompromisers can be useful when there is limited time to complete the deal however, compromisers often unnecessarily rush the negotiation process and make concessions too %uickly. CON#$CTING MEETINGS * group of friends carries on a conversation for a couple of hours. No one remembers how they ended up talking about the lives of penguins in the *ntarctic when they had started out discussing home computers. 4nless the friends were trying to accomplish something more than interesting conversation, they did no harm. /hen business meetings resemble this gathering of friends, however, few decisions are made and much time is wasted. It takes skill and follow-through to conduct effective meetings. 5eetings can be useful. /orkers can learn directly rather than through the grapevine about new personnel policies or participate in decisions affecting them. )ubordinates can keep supervisors and co-workers informed of new developments or conditions encountered on the job. 6ften workers come in contact with potential problems first, and early detection can save time and e$pense. 5eetings, then, are held to inform people  about policies or operations, gather information, conduct training, resolve problems, or make decisions./hat makes for an effective meeting7 8aving a purpose, preparing ahead of time, setting goals during the meeting, and making provisions for follow-through and assessment afterwards are critical. * successful meeting is like a team who carefully cuts, trims and  prepares a portion of meat to be hung by a hook. * hook is added, the meat is lifted and  placed on a rail, and sent on its way. 6ftentimes much work takes place in meetings. The  participants may have cut, cleaned and even lifted the heavy carcass, but they have failed to put it on the rail. Ne$t time, they will have to clean and lift it again.  Planning  *ll too often meetings take place without an e$press purpose, are too long, and little is accomplished in them. * clear understanding of objectives to be accomplished is essential to an effective meeting. 6nce the purpose is apparent, %uestions as to who will attend, and where 'and when( the meeting will take place can be dealt with. *gendas may include time for '( review of notes from past business '( discussion of new issues and '0( evaluation of progress toward goal achievement. )upervisors are cautioned not to be overly optimistic about what can be accomplished in a single meeting. )everal short meetings may work best for some objectives. articipants are more likely to absorb training material, for instance, when they can apply it between sessions. This fle$ibility may not e$ist when a decision has to be made before adjourning. *lso, a single yet longer meeting may be preferable when participants have to travel distances to attend or need to make arrangements to have their normal duties covered during their absence. 5ost employees do not mind attending a meeting if it is productive. 5eeting length can  be shortened by assigning reading or information gathering activities ahead of time. meetings close to %uitting time or outside on a cold or windy day are more conducive to  brevity but discourage worker participation. 6ther factors influencing group interaction include seating, refreshments, temperature, lighting, and ventilation 'increasingly, employees e$pect a non-smoking policy(. 9egardless of apparent formality, to be effective, meetings need to be well planned. Conducting the meeting  The role of the individual conducting the meeting is to '( keep the discussion on target ' task   function( while at the same time '( making sure everyone gets heard and people!s needs are met ' maintenance  function(. 5ost often the supervisor takes on the task of conducting a meeting, but this role may be delegated. * meeting with an ineffective leader will often resemble our friends talking about penguins. )tarting on time is a good  practice so is ending on time. unctuality, or lack of it, can become a tradition.   Meeting agenda.  If the agenda has not been given out in advance, it can be distributed at the start of the meeting. :mployees may be encouraged to contribute topics for discussion  before the meeting starts. The individual conducting the meeting can also ask for further suggested agenda additions at the commencement of the meeting. This is critical. If  people know that a subject that is important to them will be raised, they are less likely to interrupt and make attempts to introduce this topic at inopportune times. This is perhaps the most important contribution of the agenda. *greements on how the meeting time will  be spent can be set up from the start.
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