NITOP 2006 Poster Handout - Sense of Entitlement: Implications in the Classroom of a Consumer Attitude Toward Education.

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Campbell, N. J., & Budzek, K. J. (2006). Sense of Entitlement: Implications in the Classroom of a Consumer Attitude Toward Education. Poster presented at the annual National Institute on the Teaching of Psychology, January 2-5, 2006. St. Petersburg, Florida.
  Sense of Entitlement: Implications in the Classroom of aConsumer Attitude Toward Education Nicole Judice Campbell & Karolyn Budzek, University of Oklahoma Introduction  Student incivility in and around the classroome.g., arriving late to class and/or leaving early, answering cell phonesduring lecture, speaking rudely to the professor, curtly-wordedemails demanding notes from a missed lecture  Impersonal nature of large classes  Lack of knowledge of what it takes to succeed in college,particularly freshmen  Individual difference of entitlement to an education:expectations of success without a personal responsibility forachieving that successMeasuresSense of Entitlement scale  Pool of potential items were generated and administered to twosamples of Intro to Psych students (N = 362 and 819)  15 items were retained, capturing two relevant but uncorrelatedcomponents (r = .065 and -.007)Entitlement component:  Captures an expectation of success without responsibility forachieving that success  “My professors should reconsider my grade if I am close to thegrade I want.”  11 items; λ = 6.595 and 5.392; Cronbach’s α = .818 and .760Approach component:  Captures a tendency toward interaction with instructor  “I speak with teaching assistants and/or my professors duringoffice hours.”  4 items; λ = 3.935 and 3.526; Cronbach’s α = .808 and .770   The approach component can identify important distinctionsbetween types of students who score high on entitlement.Creating a vignette measure  Generated academic scenarios thought to evoke entitledbehaviors; students responded to open-ended questions  Selected open-ended statements thought to capture acontinuum of student responses  Vignette Measure: 8 vignettes, students rate multiple responseoptions  Likelihood you would engage in this behavior  Appropriateness of this behaviorSubject-matter experts rate the vignette responses  21 instructors, 0 to 37 years teaching experience  Rated vignette responses on appropriateness (0-5)  Items selected based on rater consensus  highly inappropriate ( M < 1, 18 items)  highly appropriate ( M > 4, 22 items)Inappropriate responses:  “The fact that the professor is unwilling to compromise would make me move on to his superior.”   18 items, λ = 4.627, Cronbach’s α = .856  Likelihood and appropriateness ratingsAppropriate responses:  “I would read the book and ask another student for their notes.”   22 items, λ = 5.347, Cronbach’s α = .808  Likelihood and appropriateness ratingsAnalyses:  Predicting vignette responses (appropriate and inappropriatebehavior)  Entitlement and approach scores  Conscientiousness (John, 1990)  Psychological entitlement (W.K. Campbell, 2004)Likelihood of appropriate items   Ŷ = 1.047 + .118 (Conscientiousness) + .662 (Appropriateness)+ e  R² = .477, F = 146.241, p < .001Appropriateness of appropriate items   Ŷ = 4.305 - .342 (ENT) + e  R² = .117, F = 43.276, p < .001Likelihood of inappropriate items   Ŷ = .827 + .285 (ENT) + .570 (Appropriateness) + e  R² = .626, F = 272.494, p <.001Appropriateness of inappropriate items   Ŷ = .819 +.665 (ENT) + .109 (Approach) + e  R² = .462, F = 141.843, p <.001Discussion   Entitlement and students’ own ratings of appropriateness predicttheir likelihood ratings for inappropriate responses.  Entitlement and approach predict students’ appropriateness ratingsfor inappropriate responses.   The newly created scale, with components of entitlement andapproach, has shown to be useful in predicting the likelihood of engagingin inappropriate behavior.   The Sense of Entitlement scale possesses a reliable structure andpredictive power for self-reported behaviors.  Identifiable individual differences exist in students’ tendency toengage in uncivil academic behaviors.  Behavioral manifestations of entitlement plague professors,especially in larger freshmen-level courses such as IntroductoryPsychology.  A better understanding of the putative causes of student incivility andentitled behaviors will inform best practices in higher education. Strongly disagree 1-------2-------3-------4-------5-------6-------7 Strongly agree ‘Entitlement’1.If I only read a textbook for a class, I deserve to do well on the test.2.I deserve to perform better than others in school.3.I have the right to become angry with my professors when they giveme a grade I don’t like. 4. Professors should not lecture on material not covered in the textbookor assigned readings.5.Because I pay tuition, I expect to pass the class and get credit.6.Because students pay tuition, they should have the right to come toclass if and when they choose without a grade penalty.7.Professors must be entertaining to be good.8.Professors should cater to students’ wishes because they are paid bystudents’ tuition.9.Because I pay to see my doctor, I should not have to wait for him/her.10.The price of my tuition buys me course credit.11.Students should not have to pay tuition twice if they are forced torepeat a course.‘Approach’12.I speak with my professors after class.13.I speak with teaching assistants and/or my professors during officehours.  14.I ask professors questions for clarification during and at the end of class.15.I would approach a professor about a problem I’m having in class.
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