Phylogenetic and Phytochemical Characteristics Ch5 KLEIN

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Klein, R. Phylogenetic and phytochemical characteristics of plant species with adaptogenic properties. Masters Thesis, May 2004. Unpublished. Montana State University.
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  CHAPTER 5 PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF ETHNOBOTANICAL LITERATURE Introduction Many traditional medicine remedies are employed specifically for fatigue, loss of memory and rejuvenation—all symptoms of the results of an inability to adapt to allostatic load. Most of these remedies come from plants, but other natural substances also include deer antlers (Bensky and Gamble, 1986; Hsu, 1986), gems (Ahmad et al., 1998), insects (Costa-Neto, 2002), and fungi such as Ganoderma lucidum  (Shiao, 2003) and caterpillar fungi, Cordyceps sinensis  (Koh et al., 2003). Accounts that have characteristics familiar to adaptogenic effects are especially interesting and could lead to potential adaptogenic species such as these below: “Dr. Pushpangadan discovered the properties of Trichopus zeylanicus  by accident. On a scientific expedition to the Agasthiar Hills in the Western Ghats in December 1987, he noticed that his guides, belonging to the Kani tribe, were very energetic in sharp contrast to the scientists. They had walked for several hours with the scientists — the difference was that they ate the fruits of a wild plant ( Trichopus zeylanicus ) as they walked. Dr. Pushpangadan found from the tribesmen that it was indeed the fruits they were eating that made them energetic, a fact about the plant well known to the tribe for ages” (Krishnakumar and Katakam, 2002). “The Goldi hunters regarded the berries of Schizandra  as a valuable means of strengthening themselves; they reported (1895) taking the dried berries instead of other provisions on their sable hunts; a handful of berries furnished enough strength to hunt sable all day” (Komarov, 1937). Methods Ethnobotany and ethnomedicine has been successful in providing leads to drug research (Etkin, 2001). To test whether adaptogenic species could be specifically located in the ethnobotanical literature using search terms that were applied in this thesis a limited survey was undertaken. For this survey, I used five main descriptions to characterize remedies relating to stress adaptation or dysfunctioning of the HPA axis (see legend in Table 3). The parameters chosen may be considered too subjective, increasing the risk of  producing false positives, or these parameters may be considered too limited, potentially missing valid adaptogenic species. Rejuvenating, anabolic, and antidepressant properties could be hidden within other remedies such as those for infectious or chronic disease. Future investigations could use broader descriptions but would still require strict parameters and ultimately application of bioactive and chemical studies for final differentiation. Most species in Table 3 are not sufficiently chemically described and none have been included in human clinical trials. Therefore, this sampling can only provide potential leads for further research, not assurance of an adaptogenic action. Sampling of the literature was limited to the  Journal of Ethnopharmacology (Elsevier, 1997-2003) , as well as some books and reports, including  Black Hills National Forest Preliminary Report on the  Medicinal Plants of the Black Hills Area of South Dakota  (Byrnes, 2003), Thompson Ethnobotany:  Knowledge and Usage of Plants by the Thompson Indians of British Columbia  (Turner et al., 1990),  Medicinal Wild Plants of the Prairie: An Ethnobotanical Guide  (Kindscher, 1992),  North    American  Ethnobotany  (Moerman, 1998), and  Medicinal Plants of the Pacific Northwest: A Digest of  Anthropological Writings about Native American Uses  (Thie, 1999). It should be noted that some of the taxa located in this ethnobotanical survey were also included in the list of 183 plant species investigated (see Appendix A) because they seemed particularly intriguing in their  bioactive descriptions. These species were thus included in an extended search of the literature with others found outside the ethnobotanical literature. Those remaining were not applied to further search efforts due to either familiarity with the species (e.g., Ginkgo biloba ) as being unlikely candidates, or unfamiliarity and rare mention in any other published papers. Thus, decisions were biased, but made due to brevity and the narrow purposes of the survey. Some species located in the ethnobotanical literature were subsequently supported by enough evidence of adaptogenic activity to be included in the phylogenetic analysis in this thesis. These species are bolded in Table 3.   Results The preliminary survey of ethnobotanical reports published between 1990 and 2003 resulted in 78  potential plant adaptogen species belonging to 50 plant families (see Table 3). Sixty-five species in 37  plant families are not those found in the phylogenetic analysis in Chapter 8. The families represented in Table 3 are: Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae, Apiaceae, Araliaceae, Arecaceae, Asteraceae, Basellaceae, Bombacaceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Celastraceae, Clusiaceae, Combretaceae, Commelinaceae, Connaraceae, Convolvulaceae, Crassulaceae, Cyperaceae, Dioscoraceae, Dryopteridaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Flagellariaceae, Ginkgoaceae, Hippocrateaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Liliaceae, Linaceae, Loranthaceae, Malpighiaceae, Malvaceae, Melastomataceae, Menispermaceae, Myrsinaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Oleaceae, Pandanaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Selaginellaceae, Schizaeaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae, Thymelaeaceae, Tiliaceae, and Vitaceae. Search terms resulting in the identification of most species related to the following actions: restorative, rejuvenator, exhaustion, fatigue, enhancement of stamina, physical perfomance, promotes longevity, health or well-being, debilitated, or degenerative conditions. Collection of the most species, however, does not necessarily correlate to successful identification of adaptogens. These taxa first require in vitro  or in vivo  testing and perhaps analysis of chemical constituents in comparison with constituents found in adaptogen species. This survey suggests that these terms can result in many new lead species and that the ethnobotanical literature contains potential new leads for adaptogenic species.  North American Ethnobotany Aspects The results of the ethnobotanical survey shows a lack of taxa representing North American indigenous cultures. A review of Turner et al. (1990), Kindscher (1992), Moerman (1998), and Thie (1999), uncovered very little recognition of effects produced  by adaptogens. Moerman (1998) suggests terms which could be related to stress adaptation such as blood medicine, ceremonial medicine, heart medicine, love medicine,  panacea, preventative medicine, strengthener, tonic, witchcraft medicine, and protection. Yet, upon closer investigation it is difficult to ascertain either enhancement of the HPA axis, increase in resistance to stress, nor a remedying of conditions resulting from dysfunction of stress mediators (neurotransmitters and hormones). Moerman may have inadvertently re-produced an artifact of the “strengthening” remedies. For instance, Hawaiian tribes were the source of the more than 50 out of 65 “strengthener” remedies. These herbs were employed in a variety of ways such as placing the ashes of the plant in an infant’s mouth, eating the fruit, chewing or drinking the tea. It seems unusual that the term “strengthening” would only apply to these tribes. Native American tribes commonly employed herbal baths to toughen an infant, child or adult. Many of these herbs turned out to be vesicants or have powerful stimulating effects, nullifying their use as adaptogens. The use of the stem of  Dirca palustris  (Thymelaeaceae) as an aphrodisiac and a “strengthener” by the Iroquois (Moerman, 1998). The tribe also employed this herb to induce pregnancy and as a strong purgative. Further investigation revealed that the fresh bark is a vesicant and ingestion causes severe vomiting (Ramsewak et al., 2001). Thus, this species does not meet the definition of adaptogen because it is not innocuous.   Table 3. Potential adaptogens identified in ethnobotanical literature. Species Family AB AD AS NO RS Reference  Abutilon indicum  (L.) Sweet Malvaceae X Singh et al., 2002  Aegle marmelos  (L.) Corrêa Rutaceae X Cheeptham and Towers, 2002  Agelaea pentagyna  (Lam.) Baill. Connaraceae X Novy, 1997  Albizzia lebbeck   (L.) Benth. Fabaceae X Chintawar et al., 2002  Amaranthus paniculatus  L. Amaranthaceae X X Bhatia and Jain, 2003    Anacylus pyrethrum   (L.) Lag Asteraceae X Lev and Amar, 2000    Anastatica hierochuntica   L. Brassicaceae X Yoshikawa et al., 2003    Andrographis paniculata   (Burm. F.) Nees Acanthaceae X Puri et al., 2000    Aquilaria agallocha  Roxb. Thymelaeaceae X X Lev and Amar, 2000  Aralia mandshurica   Rupr. & Maxim. Araliaceae X X   Baranov, 1982    Aralia nudicaulis  L. Araliaceae X Marles et al., 2000  Aralia schmidtii  Pojark Araliaceae X X Baranov, 1982  Asparagus adscendens  Roxb. Liliaceae X Shinwari and Khan, 2000  Astragalus membranaceus   Moench Fabaceae X Toda et al., 1999  Bacopa monniera   (L.) Wettst.   Scrophulariaceae X   Vohora et al., 2000 “  Scrophulariaceae X X Sumathi et al. 2002  Basella alba  L. Basellaceae X Moundipa et al., 1999  Boerhavia diffusa  L. Nyctaginaceae X Mungantiwar et al., 1999  Bowdichia virgilioides  Kunth. Fabaceae X Bourdy et al., 2000  Burasaia madagascariensis  DC. Menispermaceae X Novy, 1997 Cavanillesia  sp. Ruiz & Pav. Bombacaceae X Bourdy et al., 2000 Cassia occidentalis  L. Fabaceae X Novy, 1997 Cassia siamea  Lam. Fabaceae X Cheeptham and Towers, 2002 Celastrus paniculata  Willd. Celastraceae X Nalini et al., 1995 Centella asiatica  (L.) Urb. Apiaceae X Babu et al., 1995; “ X Zainol et al., 2003 “ X Kumar and Gupta, 2002 Cinnamomum zeylanicum  Blume Lauraceae X Cheeptham and Towers, 2002 Commelina madagascarica  C.B. Clarke Commelinaceae X Novy, 1997 Conocarpus erecta  L. Combretaceae X Roth and Lindorf, 2002 Convolvulus prostratus  Forssk. Convolvulaceae X Singh et al., 2002 Corchorus depressus  (L.) C. Chr. Tiliaceae X Singh et al., 2002  Dendropanax arboreus  (L.) Decne. & Planch. Araliaceae X Bourdy et al., 2000   Species Family AB AD AS NO RS Reference  Eleutherococcus senticosus   (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. Araliaceae X X X X   Baranov, 1982  Eryngium yuccifolium  Michx. Apiaceae X Kindscher, 1992  Euphorbia hirta  L. Euphorbiaceae X Novy, 1997  Euterpe precatoria  Mart. Arecaceae X Bourdy et al., 2000  Evolvulus alsinoides  (L.) L. Convolvulaceae X Singh et al., 2002  Flagellaria indica  L. Flagellariaceae X Novy, 1997 Galipea longiflora  K. Krause Rutaceae X Bourdy et al., 2000 Ginkgo biloba  L. Ginkgoaceae X X Cheeptham and Towers, 2002  Heteropterys aphrodisiaca  O. Mach. Malpighiaceae X Galvao et al., 2002  Hugonia castanea  Baill. Linaceae X Novy, 1997  Hymenaea courbaril   L. Fabaceae X Roth and Lindorf, 2002  Hypericum perforatum  L. Clusiaceae X Khalifa, 2001  Jasminum fruticans  L. Oleaceae X Said et al., 2002  Kyllinga brevifolia  Rottb. Cyperaceae X X Hellion-Ibarrola et al., 1999  Lepidium meyenii    Walp. Brassicaceae X X Cicero et al., 2001  Lygodium lanceolatum  Desv. Schizaeaceae X Novy, 1997  Maesa lanceolata  Forssk. Myrsinaceae X Novy, 1997  Matteuccia struthiopteris  (L.) Tod. Dryopteridaceae X Marles et al., 2000  Mauritia flexuosa  L. f. Arecaceae X Roth and Lindorf, 2002  Mimosa pudica  L. Fabaceae X Novy, 1997  Morinda citrifolia  L. Rubiaceae X Cheeptham and Towers, 2002  Myosotis  sp. L. Boraginaceae X De Feo, 2003 Ocimum canum  Sims Lamiaceae X Lev and Amar., 2000 Ocimum  sp. L. Lamiaceae X Bourdy et al., 2000 Ocimum sanctum   L. Lamiaceae X Archana and Namasivayam, 2000; “ X Medirrata et al., 2002 Oplopanax elatus   (Nakai) Nakai Araliaceae X X X Baranov, 1982 Ormosia  sp. Jacks. Fabaceae X Bourdy et al., 2000  Paeonia mascula  (L.) Mill. Ranunculaceae X Lev and Amar., 2000  Panax ginseng    C. A. Mey Araliaceae X X X X Baranov, 1982 “ Lee et al., 2003  Panax notoginseng   (Burkill) F.H. Chen ex C.H. Chow Araliaceae X X Cicero et al., 2000  Pandanus amaryllifolius  Roxb. Pandanaceae X Cheeptham and Towers, 2002  Pfaffia glomerata  (Sprengel) Pedersen Amaranthaceae X de Paris et al., 2000  Rhodiola sachalinensis   Boriss. Crassulaceae X X X Seo et al., 2001
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