Proposal for Part 15.244 Cognitive Radio Operation in the TV Band

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IEEE 802.18 Radio Regulatory TAG. Proposal for Part 15.244 Cognitive Radio Operation in the TV Band. Outline. Introduction TV Band Incumbents Identifying Characteristics of Incumbents Elements of Cognitive Radio Operation Proposed Cognitive Radio Rules
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IEEE 802.18 Radio Regulatory TAG Proposal for Part 15.244 Cognitive Radio Operation in the TV Band John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Outline
  • Introduction
  • TV Band Incumbents
  • Identifying Characteristics of Incumbents
  • Elements of Cognitive Radio Operation
  • Proposed Cognitive Radio Rules
  • Analysis for Personal/Portable Devices
  • Operating Range of Personal/Portable Devices
  • Detection of DTV Signals
  • DFS Sensitivity vs DTV Service Contour Field Strength
  • Co-Channel Interference Range Margin
  • Terrain Blocking
  • Analysis for Fixed Devices
  • Wrap Up
  • John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Kenwood FreeTalk XL and the TalkAbout Distance and DPS radios use GMRS - "General Mobile Radio Service" UHF frequencies with 2 watts of output power. Channels 1 - 7 on the FreeTalk XL and Motorola Distance and DPS radios are compatible with channels 1 - 7 on all Motorola FRS radios. In most circumstances, with the exception of mountainous and ski environments, 2 Kenwood FreeTalk XL radios will talk twice as far as 2 Motorola TalkAbout FRS radios. When used from inside a lodge or condo, because the obstructions, there is usually a significant increase in range using these radios. We have not seen large increases in range when used skiing on the same slope. This has been in situations where the radios have been used from the top of the slope to the bottom with a clear line of sight path. The benefit of the 2 watts of power output shows best when they are used in very thick woodlands or dense steel and/or concrete buildings. The extra power of the Kenwood FreeTalk XL really pays off for campers, hikers, and hunters. Many other factors can affect the range of these radios:Terrain - flat land, hills, or mountainsFoliage - woodlands, jungle, plains, or urban areasWeatherBuildings and StructuresBattery Condition The range you can expect will vary depending upon the conditions and terrain you use the radios in. General "Rule of Thumb" for Radio RangeAll other factors being equal:To achieve twice the range, 4 times the output power is necessary.If the antenna height is tripled then you have the potential to double your range.These concepts are very broad "rules of thumb" and your results may vary. On site business radios such as the Kenwood ProTalk T3100 or Motorola Spirit use UHF frequencies very similar to UHF GMRS frequencies. Performance of these radios will be identical to the UHF GMRS radios listed above. Kenwood ProTalk TK3100 radios can be dealer programmed for use on commercial UHF repeater systems. 2 Watt UHF GMRS RadiosFreeTalk XL TK3101ProTalk TK3100Motorola TalkAbout Distance VHF frequencies are better suited for outdoor applications requiring maximum coverage areas. The VHF signals penetrate natural foliage and vegetation much better than the higher UHF frequencies. VHF frequencies are more susceptable to man made objects like steel, steel reinforced concrete buildings. In most cases, outdoors in rural environments a 2 watt VHF radio will have 50% more range than a 2 watt UHF radio. 1 Watt UHFGMRS RadiosFreeTalk XLSProTalk XLS 1/2 Watt FRSFamily RadiosMotorola TallkAbout FRS 2 Watt VHF RadiosProTalk TK21002 Watt MURS FRS radios like the Motorola TalkAbout use "Family Radio Service" UHF frequencies and do not require a FCC license. FRS radios are required to have a maximum 1/2 watt power output. Their range is normally 1/2 of the GMRS 2 watt radios. OutsideClear Flat Terrain 1/2 to 3/4 mile15 floors 1/2 mile10 Floors 1 mile20 floors More Kenwood Radio Information Two Way Radio Range Guidelines 2 Watt VHF Business and MURS Radios 2 Watt UHF Business Radios GMRS Radios Other Factors FRS Radios Frequencies and Codes TK3100 UHF ProTalk TK3131 FreeTalk XLS Suburban Neighborhoods Terrain Urban Areas Woodlands, Thick Vegetation TK3101 FreeTalk XL TK3130 ProTalk XLS Between Buildings or Houses Accessories FCC Licensing Info TK2100 VHF ProTalk Woodlands, Moderate Vegetation Inside Buildings or Malls 1/2 mile or 5 floors 1/2 to 1.5 miles 1/2 to 1.5 miles 1/8 to 1/2 mile 1.5 to 3 miles 1 to 1.5 miles 1 to 1.5 miles 1 to 1.5 miles 1.5 to 2 miles 1 to 1.5 miles 1.5 to 2 miles 1/2 to 2 miles 1 to 1.5 miles 1.5 to 2 miles These figures are averages based upon our tests and customer feedback. Your results will vary depending upon obstructions, elevation, terrain, vegetation and building construction. 1.5 to 2 miles 1/2 to 1 mile 1/2 to 1 mile 1/2 to 1 mile 2 to 3 miles 1 to 2 miles 2 to 3 miles 1 to 2 miles 3 to 5 miles 1 to 3 miles 3 to 4 miles Introduction
  • On May 13, 2004, the FCC adopted ET Docket No. 04-186, “Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast Bands” in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM).
  • As written, ET-04-186 proposes the following two classes of devices under a new rules section, Part 15.244:
  • Personal/Portable Devices
  • 100 mW peak transmitter power, 400 mW peak EIRP (6 dBi antenna)
  • Transmission is permitted only when receiving a control signal indicating which TV channels are vacant from one of the following sources: a TV Broadcast station, an FM Broadcast station, or an unlicensed transmitter
  • Fixed Access Devices
  • 1 W peak transmitter power, 4 W peak EIRP (6 dBi antenna)
  • Must meet one of the following criteria
  • Include a GPS receiver and means of determining vacant TV channels in the area
  • Be installed by professionals to operate only on unused channels.
  • John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Kenwood FreeTalk XL and the TalkAbout Distance and DPS radios use GMRS - "General Mobile Radio Service" UHF frequencies with 2 watts of output power. Channels 1 - 7 on the FreeTalk XL and Motorola Distance and DPS radios are compatible with channels 1 - 7 on all Motorola FRS radios. In most circumstances, with the exception of mountainous and ski environments, 2 Kenwood FreeTalk XL radios will talk twice as far as 2 Motorola TalkAbout FRS radios. When used from inside a lodge or condo, because the obstructions, there is usually a significant increase in range using these radios. We have not seen large increases in range when used skiing on the same slope. This has been in situations where the radios have been used from the top of the slope to the bottom with a clear line of sight path. The benefit of the 2 watts of power output shows best when they are used in very thick woodlands or dense steel and/or concrete buildings. The extra power of the Kenwood FreeTalk XL really pays off for campers, hikers, and hunters. Many other factors can affect the range of these radios:Terrain - flat land, hills, or mountainsFoliage - woodlands, jungle, plains, or urban areasWeatherBuildings and StructuresBattery Condition The range you can expect will vary depending upon the conditions and terrain you use the radios in. General "Rule of Thumb" for Radio RangeAll other factors being equal:To achieve twice the range, 4 times the output power is necessary.If the antenna height is tripled then you have the potential to double your range.These concepts are very broad "rules of thumb" and your results may vary. On site business radios such as the Kenwood ProTalk T3100 or Motorola Spirit use UHF frequencies very similar to UHF GMRS frequencies. Performance of these radios will be identical to the UHF GMRS radios listed above. Kenwood ProTalk TK3100 radios can be dealer programmed for use on commercial UHF repeater systems. 2 Watt UHF GMRS RadiosFreeTalk XL TK3101ProTalk TK3100Motorola TalkAbout Distance VHF frequencies are better suited for outdoor applications requiring maximum coverage areas. The VHF signals penetrate natural foliage and vegetation much better than the higher UHF frequencies. VHF frequencies are more susceptable to man made objects like steel, steel reinforced concrete buildings. In most cases, outdoors in rural environments a 2 watt VHF radio will have 50% more range than a 2 watt UHF radio. 1 Watt UHFGMRS RadiosFreeTalk XLSProTalk XLS 1/2 Watt FRSFamily RadiosMotorola TallkAbout FRS 2 Watt VHF RadiosProTalk TK21002 Watt MURS FRS radios like the Motorola TalkAbout use "Family Radio Service" UHF frequencies and do not require a FCC license. FRS radios are required to have a maximum 1/2 watt power output. Their range is normally 1/2 of the GMRS 2 watt radios. OutsideClear Flat Terrain 1/2 to 3/4 mile15 floors 1/2 mile10 Floors 1 mile20 floors More Kenwood Radio Information Two Way Radio Range Guidelines 2 Watt VHF Business and MURS Radios 2 Watt UHF Business Radios GMRS Radios Other Factors FRS Radios Frequencies and Codes TK3100 UHF ProTalk TK3131 FreeTalk XLS Suburban Neighborhoods Terrain Urban Areas Woodlands, Thick Vegetation TK3101 FreeTalk XL TK3130 ProTalk XLS Between Buildings or Houses Accessories FCC Licensing Info TK2100 VHF ProTalk Woodlands, Moderate Vegetation Inside Buildings or Malls 1/2 mile or 5 floors 1/2 to 1.5 miles 1/2 to 1.5 miles 1/8 to 1/2 mile 1.5 to 3 miles 1 to 1.5 miles 1 to 1.5 miles 1 to 1.5 miles 1.5 to 2 miles 1 to 1.5 miles 1.5 to 2 miles 1/2 to 2 miles 1 to 1.5 miles 1.5 to 2 miles These figures are averages based upon our tests and customer feedback. Your results will vary depending upon obstructions, elevation, terrain, vegetation and building construction. 1.5 to 2 miles 1/2 to 1 mile 1/2 to 1 mile 1/2 to 1 mile 2 to 3 miles 1 to 2 miles 2 to 3 miles 1 to 2 miles 3 to 5 miles 1 to 3 miles 3 to 4 miles Introduction
  • Although ET 04-186 seeks comment on the possibility of using spectrum sensing, and other cognitive radio techniques, to identify and avoid TV channels occupied by an incumbent, and select channels for unlicensed operation, the Commission’s proposed rules sections do not permit that approach.
  • This presentation does the following:
  • Proposes a set of rules for an additional class of devices which permit cognitive radio technologies to be used in unlicensed devices operating in the TV band under Part 15.244.
  • Establishes that devices operating under these rules protect the operations of TV band incumbents based on widely available operational data and supporting analysis.
  • John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Kenwood FreeTalk XL and the TalkAbout Distance and DPS radios use GMRS - "General Mobile Radio Service" UHF frequencies with 2 watts of output power. Channels 1 - 7 on the FreeTalk XL and Motorola Distance and DPS radios are compatible with channels 1 - 7 on all Motorola FRS radios. In most circumstances, with the exception of mountainous and ski environments, 2 Kenwood FreeTalk XL radios will talk twice as far as 2 Motorola TalkAbout FRS radios. When used from inside a lodge or condo, because the obstructions, there is usually a significant increase in range using these radios. We have not seen large increases in range when used skiing on the same slope. This has been in situations where the radios have been used from the top of the slope to the bottom with a clear line of sight path. The benefit of the 2 watts of power output shows best when they are used in very thick woodlands or dense steel and/or concrete buildings. The extra power of the Kenwood FreeTalk XL really pays off for campers, hikers, and hunters. Many other factors can affect the range of these radios:Terrain - flat land, hills, or mountainsFoliage - woodlands, jungle, plains, or urban areasWeatherBuildings and StructuresBattery Condition The range you can expect will vary depending upon the conditions and terrain you use the radios in. General "Rule of Thumb" for Radio RangeAll other factors being equal:To achieve twice the range, 4 times the output power is necessary.If the antenna height is tripled then you have the potential to double your range.These concepts are very broad "rules of thumb" and your results may vary. On site business radios such as the Kenwood ProTalk T3100 or Motorola Spirit use UHF frequencies very similar to UHF GMRS frequencies. Performance of these radios will be identical to the UHF GMRS radios listed above. Kenwood ProTalk TK3100 radios can be dealer programmed for use on commercial UHF repeater systems. 2 Watt UHF GMRS RadiosFreeTalk XL TK3101ProTalk TK3100Motorola TalkAbout Distance VHF frequencies are better suited for outdoor applications requiring maximum coverage areas. The VHF signals penetrate natural foliage and vegetation much better than the higher UHF frequencies. VHF frequencies are more susceptable to man made objects like steel, steel reinforced concrete buildings. In most cases, outdoors in rural environments a 2 watt VHF radio will have 50% more range than a 2 watt UHF radio. 1 Watt UHFGMRS RadiosFreeTalk XLSProTalk XLS 1/2 Watt FRSFamily RadiosMotorola TallkAbout FRS 2 Watt VHF RadiosProTalk TK21002 Watt MURS FRS radios like the Motorola TalkAbout use "Family Radio Service" UHF frequencies and do not require a FCC license. FRS radios are required to have a maximum 1/2 watt power output. Their range is normally 1/2 of the GMRS 2 watt radios. OutsideClear Flat Terrain 1/2 to 3/4 mile15 floors 1/2 mile10 Floors 1 mile20 floors More Kenwood Radio Information Two Way Radio Range Guidelines 2 Watt VHF Business and MURS Radios 2 Watt UHF Business Radios GMRS Radios Other Factors FRS Radios Frequencies and Codes TK3100 UHF ProTalk TK3131 FreeTalk XLS Suburban Neighborhoods Terrain Urban Areas Woodlands, Thick Vegetation TK3101 FreeTalk XL TK3130 ProTalk XLS Between Buildings or Houses Accessories FCC Licensing Info TK2100 VHF ProTalk Woodlands, Moderate Vegetation Inside Buildings or Malls 1/2 mile or 5 floors 1/2 to 1.5 miles 1/2 to 1.5 miles 1/8 to 1/2 mile 1.5 to 3 miles 1 to 1.5 miles 1 to 1.5 miles 1 to 1.5 miles 1.5 to 2 miles 1 to 1.5 miles 1.5 to 2 miles 1/2 to 2 miles 1 to 1.5 miles 1.5 to 2 miles These figures are averages based upon our tests and customer feedback. Your results will vary depending upon obstructions, elevation, terrain, vegetation and building construction. 1.5 to 2 miles 1/2 to 1 mile 1/2 to 1 mile 1/2 to 1 mile 2 to 3 miles 1 to 2 miles 2 to 3 miles 1 to 2 miles 3 to 5 miles 1 to 3 miles 3 to 4 miles TV Band Incumbents
  • Full Service TV Broadcast Stations (CFR1 Title 47 Part 73).
  • Class A TV Broadcast Stations (CFR Title 47 Part 73 subpart J).
  • LPTV, TV Translator, TV Booster Stations, Auxiliary Operations, and Wireless Microphones (CFR Title 47 Part 74).
  • Private Land Mobile Radio Services (PLMRS) in 13 Metro Areas (CFR Title 47 Part 90), including Public Safety communications systems.
  • Commercial Land Mobile Radio Services (CMRS) in 13 Metro Areas (CFR Title 47 Part 20).
  • Wireless Medical Telemetry Services (WMTS) (CFR Title 47 Part 95 subpart H).
  • John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. TV Band Incumbent Protection from Cognitive Devices radios use GMRS - "General Mobile Radio Service" UHF frequencies with 2 watts of output power. Channels 1 - 7 on the FreeTalk XL and Motorola Distance and DPS radios are compatible with channels 1 - 7 on all Motorola FRS radios. In most circumstances, with the exception of mountainous and ski environments, 2 Kenwood FreeTalk XL radios will talk twice as far as 2 Motorola TalkAbout FRS radios. When used from inside a lodge or condo, because the obstructions, there is usually a significant increase in range using these radios. We have not seen large increases in range when used skiing on the same slope. This has been in situations where the radios have been used from the top of the slope to the bottom with a clear line of sight path. The benefit of the 2 watts of power output shows best when they are used in very thick woodlands or dense steel and/or concrete buildings. The extra power of the Kenwood FreeTalk XL really pays off for campers, hikers, and hunters.
  • In order to insure that public safety operations are protected, Ch 14-20 are excluded from the proposed cognitive radio class of operation.
  • Wireless Medical Telemetry Services operate on Ch 37 within the TV band, which is excluded by the Commission’s proposed rules from Part 15.244 device operations.
  • Wireless microphone operation as a Low Power Auxiliary Station under Part 74 can protected by cognitive techniques, or by rule (assignment to specific channels in each service area, etc). This presentation does not address wireless microphones.
  • Wireless video assist devices are provided for as Low Power Auxiliary Devices in Part 74, but no equipment is presently authorized or licensed for operation. This class of equipment should be considered for termination.
  • The remaining incumbents are TV broadcast signals, which, because of their unique signatures (analog/NTSC, and digital/ATSC), are readily identifiable.
  • John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Analog TV (NTSC) Spectrum radios use GMRS - "General Mobile Radio Service" UHF frequencies with 2 watts of output power. Channels 1 - 7 on the FreeTalk XL and Motorola Distance and DPS radios are compatible with channels 1 - 7 on all Motorola FRS radios. In most circumstances, with the exception of mountainous and ski environments, 2 Kenwood FreeTalk XL radios will talk twice as far as 2 Motorola TalkAbout FRS radios. When used from inside a lodge or condo, because the obstructions, there is usually a significant increase in range using these radios. We have not seen large increases in range when used skiing on the same slope. This has been in situations where the radios have been used from the top of the slope to the bottom with a clear line of sight path. The benefit of the 2 watts of power output shows best when they are used in very thick woodlands or dense steel and/or concrete buildings. The extra power of the Kenwood FreeTalk XL really pays off for campers, hikers, and hunters.
  • Power primarily confined to Video and Audio carriers.
  • Distinctive double peaked spectrum makes identification by spectrum profiling relatively easy.
  • Relatively high narrowband power levels compared to DTV.
  • John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Digital TV (ATSC) Spectrum radios use GMRS - "General Mobile Radio Service" UHF frequencies with 2 watts of output power. Channels 1 - 7 on the FreeTalk XL and Motorola Distance and DPS radios are compatible with channels 1 - 7 on all Motorola FRS radios. In most circumstances, with the exception of mountainous and ski environments, 2 Kenwood FreeTalk XL radios will talk twice as far as 2 Motorola TalkAbout FRS radios. When used from inside a lodge or condo, because the obstructions, there is usually a significant increase in range using these radios. We have not seen large increases in range when used skiing on the same slope. This has been in situations where the radios have been used from the top of the slope to the bottom with a clear line of sight path. The benefit of the 2 watts of power output shows best when they are used in very thick woodlands or dense steel and/or concrete buildings. The extra power of the Kenwood FreeTalk XL really pays off for campers, hikers, and hunters.
  • Power spread over center 5.38 MHz within a TV channnel.
  • Pilot tone is a distinctive feature when observed in a narrowband receiver.
  • Pilot tone power is 11.3 dB below average power measured in a 6 MHz bandwidth.
  • John Notor, Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Elements of Cognitive Radio Operation radios use GMRS - "General Mobile Radio Service" UHF frequencies with 2 watts of output power. Channels 1 - 7 on the FreeTalk XL and Motorola Distance and DPS radios are compatible with channels 1 - 7 on all Motorola FRS radios. In most circumstances, with the exception of mountainous and ski environments, 2 Kenwood FreeTalk XL radios will talk twice as far as 2 Motorola TalkAbout FRS radios. When used from inside a lodge or condo, because the obstructions, there is usually a significan
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