Roadmap to Prayer Lesson 33

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Rehov Kahanami n 54, Bnei Brac 03.616.6340 164 Vi l l age Pat h, Lakewood NJ 08701 732.370.3344 fax 1.877.Pi rchei (732.367.8168) T H E PI RCH EI SH OSH AN I M ROADMAP T O PRAYER PROJECT The Roadmap t o Prayer Lesson 33 © Pirchei Shoshanim 2006 This shiur may not be reproduced in any f orm without permission of the copyright hol der T T h h e e R R o o a a d d m m a a p p t t o o P P r r a a y y e e r r 489 Mincha: The Aft er noon Prayer B Ba ac ck k g gr r o ou un nd d n¡ :¡ pn
  Rehov Kahanamin 54, Bnei Brac 03.616.6340164 Village Path, Lakewood NJ 08701 732.370.3344 fax 1.877.Pirchei (732.367.8168) THE PIRCHEI SHOSHANIM ROADMAP TO PRAYER PROJECT The Roadmap to PrayerLesson 33 © Pirchei Shoshanim 2006This shiur may not be reproduced in any form without permission of the copyright holder  TThheeRRooaaddmmaappttooPPrraayyeerr 489 Mincha: The Afternoon Prayer BBaacckkggrroouunndd  The Gemara in Berachos 1 teaches that the Patriarchs instituted the three daily prayers. AvrahamAvinu instituted the Morning Prayer - Tefillas Shacharis ; YitzchakAvinu instituted the Afternoon Prayer - TefillasMincha ; Yaakov Avinu instituted theNighttime Prayer - Tefillas Ma’ariv . The Gemara also states that the three dailyprayers correspond to the two daily sacrifices – the KorbanTamid of the Morning andof the Evening and to the burning of limbs and fats of the Korbanos which wereplaced on the mizbei   ach at night. IInnttiimmaattiioonn  The Menoras Hamaor 2 brings a well known reference that the Patriarchs instituted therespective Tefillos which is encoded in their names. š Avraham  the second letter in his name in Hebrew stands for Boker  – Morning. š Yitzchak  – the second letter in his name in Hebrew stands for Tzaharayim  – Noon. š Yaakov  - the second letter in his name in Hebrew stands for Erev   –Evening.Additionally, in the letters corresponding to the At-bash order of the Hebrewalphabet, i.e. the first letter Aleph  pairs with the last letter Taf  which gives thesound of At  . Then the second letter Beis pairs with the second last letter whichgives the sound of Bash  and so on.Accordingly, 1 Daf 26b 2 Chapter 2 Tefilla Lesson 33  THE PIRCHEI SHOSHANIM ROADMAP TO PRAYER PROJECTAN ATTACHMENT OF THE SOUL – LESSON 33 490 š Avraham  the first letter represents the letter Taf  for Tefillas  and Beis  the second letter represents the letter Shin  for Shacharis  . š Yitzchak  and Yaakov  both begin with the letter Yud  whichcorresponds to the letter Mem  in At-bash alphabet, for Mincha  and Ma   ariv  respectively. Why Tefillas Mincha is called Mincha Why do we call Tefillas Mincha, “ Mincha ”, more than any other Tefilla? Some say it isbecause according to Torah law one is obligated to daven (pray) one time a day 3 .Accordingly, the second prayer, Mincha , is an added offering; something more thannecessary; a gift. Mincha also means a gift as it says that YaakovAvinu sent a Mincha, agift, to appease his brother Eisav. The Abudraham writes that the name Mincha alludes to the sin of Adam who sinnedduring the tenth Halachic Hour ( Sha   ahZemanis ) of the day that he was created whichis in the middle of the afternoon. According to TargumOnkelos, the word used in this pasuk to express the time of day of Adam   s sin is the root word Mincha 4 . Mincha Gedolah, Mincha Ketanah Mincha is the afternoon prayer which begins at half past noon and can be prayed untilthe end of the day, nighttime 5 . There are two basic times for Mincha;MinchaGedolah and MinchaKetanah . MinchaGedolah is the earliest time one can daven Mincha which isat half past noon. This was the earliest time that the afternoon daily sacrifice wouldbe brought during the year. That would be on the busiest day the Kohanim had in the Beis Hamikdash, when ErevPesach (Passover eve) would fall on ErevShabbos (Sabbatheve). It was so busy because there were so many KorbanPesach offerings beingbrought and time was short because it was Erev Shabbos and all the Pesach sacrificeshad to be roasted before nighttime.Since that was the earliest possible time for the KorbanTamid of the afternoon, it is also the earliest time for Tefillas Mincha . The 3 Rambam HilchosTefilla 1:1 4  )  '  ,  (  '  . 5 This is according to the opinion of the Rabbanan. The term “nighttime” is not an exact time because everyoneagrees that within fifteen minutes of “nighttime” it is considered Bein Hashemashos (“twilight”) and too late for TefillasMincha ( Mishna Berura 233:2) . According to RebbeYehudah the latest time for Mincha is at Plag HaMincha which isexplained later in the lesson.  THE PIRCHEI SHOSHANIM ROADMAP TO PRAYER PROJECTAN ATTACHMENT OF THE SOUL – LESSON 33 491 second time for Tefillas Mincha is called MinchaKetanah which officially begins at nineand a half hours into the day. This calculation is based on Halachic Hours whichtakes all the daylight hours 6 and divides into twelve equal parts – Sha   os Zemaniyos . Theamount of minutes in each Halachic Hour will vary according to the length of theday. If there are just ten daylight hours in a winter day, then each hour will consist offifty minutes. If there are fourteen hours in a summer day, then there will be seventyminutes in each hour. In order to figure out Mincha Ketanah when a day begins at 6:15A.M. and ends at 8:15 P.M. one would count nine and a half hours of seventyminutes each 7 and add it to 6:15 A.M. when the day began which would come out atabout 5:23 P.M.The same formula is repeated for any length of day, whether short orlong. Earliest Time for Mincha Gedolah MinchaGedolah is the earliest time one can pray ( daven ) Mincha .The Mechaber 8 rules that one who davens before six and a half Halachic Hours intothe day has not fulfilled his obligation to pray ( daven ) Mincha . The Mishna Berura 9 brings that there are opinions that consider davening right after Chatzos (noon) to bevalid be   dieved ( post facto ). Likewise, one who wasn’t able to pray ( daven ) Shacharis ontime, can davenShacharis up until Chatzos (noon). Once Chatzos arrives, it is now timefor Tefillas Mincha, although we don’t daven Mincha then either because one can easilymake a mistake to daven before Chatzos. The correct order of Prayer ( Tefilla ) in thiscaseis to first pray ( daven ) Mincha and then another prayer ( Tefilla )for Shacharis as amakeup Tefilla for the one he missed. If one davenedShacharis before Mincha during thefirst half hour after Chatzos (noon) one need not repeat that Shemoneh Esrei becausesome opinions maintain that the time for Shacharis 10 has not yet elapsed until half past Chatzos (noon) . 6 There are different opinions whether to calculate the hours between sunrise and sunset or from Alos Hashachar until Tzeis Hakochavim. 7 (9.5 x 70 minutes) ÷ 60 minutes = 11:08 (HH:MM) 8 Simon 233 9 Ibid.   k 2 quoting “some Achronim (later day authorities)”. However, in practice the Chafetz Chaim argues that onewho prayed ( davened ) then has possibly fulfilled his obligation to daven since the first half hour after noon is invalidonly because one can easily mistakenly think even before noon is after noon. TefillasNedava would be the bestoption in case of doubt if one can concentrate properly and add a portion to his Tefillas Nedava. 10 Simon 89   k 7
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