Roosevelt and Progressivism

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Roosevelt and Progressivism. Chapter 22 Section 1. Political machines gain power throughout 1890’s, controlling cities and state governments. Big corporations also gain power over economy and government . Rise of Progressivism. Individuals organize to reform these issues.
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Roosevelt and ProgressivismChapter 22 Section 1Political machines gain power throughout 1890’s, controlling cities and state governments.
  • Big corporations also gain power over economy and government
  • Rise of ProgressivismIndividuals organize to reform these issues.
  • Most were native born and middle class.
  • The reformers and their movements came to be called progressivism.
  • ProgressivismAround 1900, groups of writers are going to expose corruption to society.
  • These writers were known as muckrakers.
  • Muckrakers and progressives shared 3 goals:
  • - reform government & expand democracy- promote social welfare- create economic reformMuckrakersWho could be considered present day muckrakers? Present Day Muckrakers1870s and 1880s, elected officials typically hand out government jobs and contracts, known as patronage.
  • To reform this, government passes Pendleton Civil Service Act (1883).
  • Act requires people to take civil service exams for certain government jobs.
  • Government ReformsIn order to give voters more control over government, a direct primary was established.
  • Direct primaries allowed voters to select candidates to run for office, rather than party conventions.
  • Expanding Democracy3 other reforms were also proposed:
  • Initiative: allowed voters to propose a law directly.
  • Referendum: proposed law was submitted for vote by the people.
  • Recall: allowed people to vote an official out of office.
  • Expanding Democracy Goals were to address issues of poverty, unemployment, poor working conditions.
  • Who were some of the social reformers from chapter 21?
  • Social WelfareHull House member who pushes for minimum wage laws and limits on women’s working hours. Florence KelleyProgressive goal of limiting power of big business and regulating activities (trusts).
  • Trusts would work together to cut prices, eliminate competitors, and then raise prices.
  • Economic ReformMade it illegal for corporations to form trusts and control and industry.
  • Government was unable to enforce the law at first.
  • Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)Republican vice president who gains presidency after McKinley is shot.
  • Saw gov. as an “umpire,” regulating business out of public interest
  • Theodore RooseveltRoosevelt finally enforced the Sherman Antitrust Act.
  • Prior to Roosevelt, businesses mainly ignored the law.
  • First target was the railroads, followed by Standard Oil and tobacco trusts.
  • Roosevelt’s Enforcement After reading Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle, Roosevelt launches investigation in meat packing industry.
  • Signs Meat Inspection Act (1906) and the Pure Food and Drug Act, banning sales of impure foods and medicines.
  • Roosevelt Leads ReformsAlthough Roosevelt pushes for reforms, he leaves out African Americans.
  • He believed it to be morally wrong, but did not take political risk.
  • DiscriminationRoosevelt was an avid hunter and outdoorsman.
  • Felt nature was gradually losing resources.
  • Preserves over 200 million acres.
  • ConservationTaft & Wilson as ProgressivesSection 2 Eugene V. Debs runs for president in 1908.
  • Many Americans are frustrated with capitalism.
  • Debs earns 420,000 votes under the Socialist Party.
  • Capitalism vs SocialismDebs ran against Republican William H. Taft and Democrat William Jennings Bryan
  • Taft promised to follow Roosevelt’s reforms and progressive ideology.
  • William Howard TaftTaft continued to attack trusts (twice as many as Roosevelt).
  • However, he receives little credit as he joins with conservative Republicans.
  • Taft does pass two amendments.
  • Passed in 1909 and ratified in 1913.
  • Gave Congress power to create income taxes.
  • Intended to spread cost of government to more people.
  • Sixteenth AmendmentRatified in 1913
  • Allowed for direct election of US Senators
  • Prior to 17th Amendment, state legislatures chose Senators.
  • Seventeenth AmendmentRepublicans are split on Roosevelt and Taft.
  • Roosevelt breaks off and forms Progressive Party (Bull Moose Party).
  • Democrats chose Woodrow Wilson
  • The divide in Republicans stole votes from Taft, allowing Wilson to win the election.
  • Election of 1912Thought government should break up monopolies.
  • Also thought government should help workers in their struggle against business owners.
  • Wilson Presidency Businesses could no longer buy stock of a competitor.
  • Clayton Act was also prolabor:
  • Labor unions and farm organizations could merge and expand
  • Limited courts on ending strikes
  • Legalized strikes, picketing, and boycotts
  • Clayton Antitrust Act (1914)Improved nations monetary and banking system
  • Federal Reserve Board oversees 12 regional Reserve banks.
  • Creates more flexible currency system, allowing banks to control money supply through interest rates.
  • Federal Reserve Act (1913)Regional Reserve Banks (12)Wilson does little for African American civil rights
  • He actually segregates the federal government
  • Wilson, Taft, and Roosevelt do not push for civil rights, despite being “progressives”.
  • Wilson’s DiscriminationRise of KKK (1915)Silent, black & white film portraying whites & the KKK as “heroes” of Reconstruction. KKK saved white women from African American attackers“Prohibition Amendment”
  • Reformers thought alcohol ban would reduce poverty.
  • Business leaders felt it made workers less efficient
  • Eighteenth AmendmentCongress finally passes in 1917
  • Prohibited manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages
  • States ratified amendment in 1919
  • Passage of 18th Amendment3prolabor reforms of Clayton Antitrust Act.
  • What was the main purpose of the Federal Reserve?
  • Review
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