Software Engineering Extreme Programming

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Software Engineering Extreme Programming. Based on presentation by Mira Balaban Department of Computer Science Ben-Gurion university Based on: K. Beck: Extreme Programming Explained. E. M. Burke and B.M. Coyner : Java Extreme Programming Cookbook.
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Software EngineeringExtreme ProgrammingBased on presentation by Mira Balaban Department of Computer Science Ben-Gurion universityBased on: K. Beck: Extreme Programming Explained. E. M. Burke and B.M. Coyner: Java Extreme Programming Cookbook. L. Crispin and T. House: Testing Extreme Programminghttp://www.extremeprogramming.orgAnd slides of: Kent Beck and Ward Cunningham, Laurie Williams, Vera Peeters and Pascal Van Cauwenberghe, Ian Sommerville: http://www.comp.lancs.ac.uk/computing/resources/IanS/SE7/Presentations/index.htmlExtreme programming
  • Perhaps the best-known and most widely used agile method.
  • Extreme Programming (XP) takes an ‘extreme’ approach to iterative development.
  • New versions may be built several times per day;
  • Increments are delivered to customers every 2 weeks;
  • All tests must be run for every build and the build is only accepted if tests run successfully.
  • Extreme Programming ExplainedWhat is Extreme about XP?An analogy made by Beck and Cunningham:
  • A rheostat is a common electrical control. Most volume controls on audio devices are rheostats. If you want silence, turn the knob all the way to one side. For maximum volume, turn the knob all the way to the other side.
  • XP treats good practices in programming
  • as if they had rheostats, and turns all of them all the way up. Some eXtreme Practices
  • Are code inspections good?
  • Then code in pairs—all code is inspected all the time!
  • Is testing good?
  • Then write the unit test before the code, automate testing, and run all tests all the time.
  • Is customer contact good?
  • Then locate a customer representative in the team, so that you have access to them all the time.
  • From Waterfall to Extreme ProgrammingNext Step: XP
  • Extreme Programming takes the idea of incremental development to the next level.
  • Plan, analyze, and design a little at a time.
  • XP is a software development “culture”.
  • It is based on 4 basic values (“commandments”) that are achieved by employing 12 (or 13) simple rules (practices).
  • Purpose of XP – Reduce the cost of change
  • Under certain circumstances, the exponential rise in the cost of changing software over time can be flattened. If we can flatten the curve, old assumptions about the best way to develop software no longer hold.(kentBeck)
  • ---- Traditional Cost of change---- XP expected cost of changeCost of changeRequirements Analysis Design Testing Implementation ProductionPurpose of XP – Reduce the cost of change:The cost of change may not rise dramatically over timeThis is the technical premise of XP.
  • If the cost of change rose slowly over time, you would act completely differently from how you do under the assumption that costs rise exponentially.
  • You would make big decisions as late in the process as possible, to defer the cost of making the decisions and to have the greatest possible chance that they would be right.
  • You would only implement what you had to, in hopes that the needs you anticipate for tomorrow wouldn't come true.
  • You would introduce elements to the design only as they simplified existing code or made writing the next bit of code simpler.
  • If change is ruinously expensive, you would be crazy to charge ahead without careful forethought.
  • But if change stays cheap, the additional value and reduced risk of early concrete feedback outweighs the additional cost of early change.
  • Keeping the cost of change low doesn't just happen magically. -There are technologies and practices that keep software pliable. (Kent Beck)
  • What is Extreme programming
  • Extreme programming is a discipline of software development based on values of
  • simplicity, communication, feedback, courage.
  • It works by bringing the whole team together in the presence of simple practices, with enough feedback to tune practices to their unique situation.
  • Whole team: the best teams have no specialists only general contributors with special skills.
  • Planning: XP addresses two key questions in software development:
  • predicting what will be accomplished by the due date, and
  • determining what to do next.
  • The 4 basic values of XP
  • We will be successful when we have a style that celebrates a consistent set of values that serve both human and commercial needs:
  • communication, simplicity, feedback, courage. Kent BeckThe 4 basic values of XP
  • Communication: Use person to person communication instead of written documents where possible.
  • Simplicity: Eliminate unnecessary elements of building software.
  • Feedback: Use constant software testing as a major source of quality feedback.
  • Courage:Possible when you take the simplest possible approach and employ a process high in communication.
  • The RulesCommunication RulesSimplicity RulesFeedback RulesCourage RulesCommunication Rules (practices)
  • Onsite customer.
  • Pair programming.
  • Coding standards.
  • Communication Rules 1. On Site Customer
  • At least one customer is always present.
  • This customer is available full-time to:
  • Answer questions about the system.
  • Negotiate the timing and scheduling of releases.
  • Make all decisions that affect business goals.
  • The customer writes functional tests
  • (with the help of Development).Communication Rules 2. Pair Programming
  • All programming is done with two coders at the same machine.
  • The programmers must share one mouse, keyboard, screen, etc.
  • At least two people are always
  • intimately familiar with every part of the system, and every line of code is reviewed as it's written. Communication Rules Here is how pair programming works:
  • You pick out a user story for your next task.
  • A user story is a requirement from the customer. Stories are typically written on index cards, and the customer decides which stories are the most important.
  • You ask for help from another programmer.
  • The two of you work together on a small piece of functionality.
  • Try to work on small tasks that take a few hours.
  • After the immediate task is complete, pick a different partner or offer to help someone else.
  • Eric Burke and Brian CoynerPair Programminghttp://www.pairprogramming.com/With pair-programming:
  • Two software engineers work on one task at one computer
  • One engineer, the driver, has control of the keyboard and mouse and creates the implementation
  • The other engineer, the navigator, watches the driver’s implementation to identify defects and participates in on-demand brainstorming
  • The roles of driver and observer are periodically rotated between the two software engineers
  • Shortcomings?
  • Pair programming to please your boss is just frustrating. Pair programming to communicate, get feedback, simplify the system, catch errors, and bolster your courage makes a lot of sense . (Kent Beck)Communication Rules Research Findings to Date
  • Strong anecdotal evidence from industry
  • “We can produce near defect-free code in less than half the time.”
  • Empirical Study
  • Pairs produced higher quality code
  • 15% less defects (difference statistically significant)
  • Pairs completed their tasks in about half the time
  • 58% of elapsed time (difference not statistically significant)
  • Most programmers reluctantly embark on pair programming
  • Pairs enjoy their work more (92%)
  • Pairs feel more confident in their work products (96%)
  • India Technology Company
  • 24% increase in productivity (KLOC/Person-Month)
  • 10-fold reduction in defects.
  • Communication Rules 3. Coding Standards
  • Agree upon standards for coding styles.
  • Promotes ease of understanding and uniformity.
  • No idiosyncratic quirks that could complicate understanding and refactoring by the entire team.
  • Do it My Way or Get Out.. ?
  • No - The XP rules are rules that the Team chose to live by, and the Team says "Do it OUR way, or get out".
  • Simplicity Rules (practices)
  • Metaphor.
  • Simple design.
  • Refactoring.
  • 4. MetaphorMetaphor: A story that everyone-customers, programmers, and managers - can tell about how the system works
  • Use metaphors to describe how the system should work.
  • These analogies express the functionality of the system.
  • Provides a simple way to remember naming conventions.
  • The metaphor in XP replaces much of what other people call "architecture."
  • The problem with calling the 10,000-meter view of the system an architecture is that architectures don't necessarily push the system into any sense of cohesion.
  • http://www.xpexchange.net/english/intro/metaphor.html
  • Why metaphors work in XP
  • You couldn't possibly start development with just a metaphor. There isn't enough detail there, and besides, what if you're wrong? Unless:
  • You quickly have concrete feedback from real code and tests about whether the metaphor is working in practice.
  • Your customer is comfortable talking about the system in terms of the metaphor.
  • You refactor to continually refine your understanding of what the metaphor means in practice.
  • Then perhaps you could start development with just a metaphor.
  • 5. Simple Design
  • The code should pass all tests and fulfill certain functionality while maintaining:
  • Best communicate the intention (cohesion).
  • No duplicate code.
  • Fewest possible classes and methods.
  • “Say everything once and only once.”
  • XP developers:
  • Do the simplest thing that could possibly work:
  • Never solve a more general problem than the specific problem at hand.
  • Never add functionality sooner than needed.
  • 6. Refactoring
  • The code may be changed at any time to provide:
  • – Simplification.– Flexibility.– Reduced redundancy.
  • Automated unit tests are used to verify every change.
  • There is no "canonical form" for code after which point refactoring is completely unnecessary.
  • Code is refactored until it satisfies the teams notions of good XP code.  
  • What is refactoring
  • Refactoring is the practice of:
  • Improving the design of code without breaking its functionality.
  • Simplicity requires constant refactoring: small changes.
  • Goals:
  • Clarity: the meaning of the code should be obvious to anyone reading it.  
  • Eliminate redundant code -  Similar and redundant classes and code blocks should be combined, and unnecessary functions and variables eliminated.
  • Simplicity : Complexity should be added only if absolutely necessary to improve readability or modularity.
  • Refactoring example: Eliminate redundant comments/** * Sets the value of x. * @param x the horizontal position in pixels. */ public void setX(int x) { this.x = x; }After renaming:public void setXPixelPosition(int xPixelPosition) { this.xPixelPosition = xPixelPosition;}
  • No need for comments.
  • But: Requires changing all references to the method throughout the application. Refactoring example: Rename variablepublic class Person { private String firstName; public void setFirst(String n) { this.firstName = n; } }Rename variable:public class Person { private String firstName; public void setFirst(String firstName) { this.firstName = firstName; } } Refactoring example: Rename methodpublic class Person { private String firstName; public void setFirstName(String firstName) { this.firstName = firstName; } }
  • The method has been refactored and is now more easily understandable.
  • Changing the method name requires you to change all references to the method throughout your application.
  • This is where a good IDE can help out, because it can identify all usages and update the calls automatically.
  • When to refactor?
  • Refactor constantly, throughout the lifetime of a project.
  • Each time you fix a bug or add a new feature, look for overly complex code. Look for:
  • Chunks of logic that are duplicated and refactor them into a shared method.
  • Try to rename methods and arguments so they make sense.
  • Try to migrate poorly designed code towards better usage of design patterns.
  • Writing unit tests is a great way to identify portions of code that need refactoring.
  • When you write tests for a class, your test is a client of that class.
  • How to refactor?
  • Make sure you have a working unit test for the feature you are about to refactor.
  • Do the refactoring, or a portion of the refactoring.
  • Run the test again to ensure you did not break anything.
  • Repeat steps 2-4 until you are finished with the refactoring.
  • Feedback Rules (practices)
  • Testing.
  • Continuous integration.
  • Small releases.
  • 7. Testing
  • Tests are continuously written with the system.
  • All tests are run together at every step.
  • Customers write tests that will convince them the system works.
  • Don’t proceed until current system passes ALL tests.
  • Testing
  • Every piece of code has a set of automated unit tests, which are released into the code repository along with the code.
  • The programmers write the unit tests before they write the code, then add unit tests whenever one is found to be missing.
  • No modification or refactoring of code is complete until 100% of the unit tests have run successfully.
  • Acceptance tests validate larger blocks of system functionality, such as user stories.
  • When all the acceptance tests pass for a given user story, that story is considered complete. Unit tests
  • A unit test is a programmer-written test for a single piece of functionality in an application.
  • Unit tests should be fine grained, testing small numbers of closely-related methods and classes.
  • Unit tests should not test high-level application functionality.
  • Testing application functionality is called acceptance testing, and acceptance tests should be designed by people who understand the business problem better than the programmers.
  • Testing new features – the test-driven process (1)
  • Run the suite of unit tests for the entire project, ensuring that they all pass.
  • Write a unit test for the new feature.
  • Run the test and observe its failure.
  • Implement the new feature.
  • Run the test again and observe its success.
  • Testing new features –the test-driven process (2)Think of another test, and follow this process:
  • Write another test for some aspect of the new function that might break, such as an illegal method argument.
  • Run all of your tests.
  • Fix the code if necessary, and repeat until you cannot think of any more tests.
  • Once your new feature is fully tested, it is time to run the entire suite of unit tests for the entire project.
  • Regression testing ensures that your new code did not inadvertently break someone else's code.
  • If some other test fails, you immediately know that you just broke it. You must fix all of the tests before you can commit your changes to the repository.
  • How to write tests?All tests must be pass/fail style tests. A bad test output:Now Testing Person.java: First Name: Tanner Last Name: Burke Age: 1A good test output:Now Testing Person.java: Failure: Expected Age 2, but was 1 instead. Writing testsGrouping tests into test suites:Now Testing Person.java: Failure: Expected Age 2, but was 1 instead Now Testing Account.java: Passed! Now Testing Deposit.java: Passed! Summary: 2 tests passed, 1 failed.
  • The entire suite of unit tests must always pass at 100% before any code is integrated into the source repository.
  • Acceptance tests do not have to pass at 100%.
  • 8. Continuous Integration
  • Newly finished code is integrated immediately. Unit tests must run 100% successfully, both before and after each integration.
  • System is rebuilt from scratch for every addition.
  • New system must pass all tests or new code is discarded.
  • Additions and modifications to the code are integrated into the system on at least a daily basis.
  • 9. Small Releases
  • A functional system is produced after a few months.
  • System is released before the whole problem is solved.
  • New releases regularly (daily to monthly).
  • The smallest useful feature set is identified for the first release.
  • Releases are performed as early and often as possible.
  • Each release:
  • a few new features added each time. Courage Rules (practices)
  • The planning game.
  • Collective code ownership.
  • Sustainable pace.
  • 10. The Planning Game
  • Schedule small tasks to be completed during the current completed iteration.
  • Programmers focus their attention on the tasks at hand.
  • List of tasks is updated regularly.
  • More info: http://www.xp.be/11. Collective Ownership
  • All workers can access any of the code.
  • Any programmer can change any part of the system if an opportunity for improvement exists.
  • The TEAM makes the product.
  • It works…
  • … in disciplined XP teams.
  • Requires Ego-less team members.
  • 12. Sustainable pace: 40 Hour Weeks
  • Consecutive weeks of overtime is not allowed.
  • The need for overtime is a symptom of a deeper problem.
  • 13. Open Workspace
  • Work on computers set up in the middle of a large room with cubicles around the edges.
  • Question: With how many people do you want to work in one room?
  • 14. Daily Standup Meeting
  • Stand up to keep it short.
  • Developers report :
  • what was accomplished yesterday
  • what will be attempted today
  • what problems are causing delays.
  • Everybody
  • Agrees what they will work on
  • Raises problems & difficulties
  • Knows what’s going on
  • Initial pairing.
  • More info: http://www.xp.be/More info: http://www.xp.be/More info: http://www.xp.be/Just Rules
  • These rules are just rules.
  • XP teammates agree to follow all of the rules.
  • An agreement can be made to change the rules.
  • – Must address side effects of rule change.XP Practices Loops
  • Release loop: Small releases, planning game, customer acceptance tests, onsite customer.
  • Team loop: Collective code ownership, metaphor, sustainable pace, coding standards, open space, daily stand-up meetings..
  • Code loop: Test driven development, refactoring, simple design, pair programming, continuous integration.
  • XP Planning/Feedback timesThe Game:XP: How it worksWhy Plan?
  • We plan because
  • We need to ensure that we are always working on the most important thing we need to do.
  • We need to coordinate with other people.
  • When unexpected events occur we need to understand the consequences for the first two.
  • The Planning Game Rationale
  • http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?PlanningGame
  • Planning is an emotional minefield.
  • Development would like to program faster
  • Project manager would like to be able to say exactly
  • how fast Development can go.
  • Business would like to be able to say exactly what they want
  • Business would rather not change its mind.
  • When any of the participants in planning begin acting these wishes (or rather in accordance with the fears that lie behind each wish), then planning doesn't work well.
  • The Planning Game:Create a little emotional distance from planning by treating it as a game (hence the name). The game has a goal, playing pieces, players, and rules for allowable moves.
  • The Planning Game (1)Pieces:The basic playing piece is the UserStory. Each Story is written on an index card. Stories have a value and a cost, although this is a little tricky because the value of some Stories depends on the pr
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