Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

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The Civil War (1861-1865) Through Maps, Charts, Graphs & Pictures. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY. North vs. South in 1861. Rating the North & the South. Slave/Free States Population, 1861. Railroad Lines, 1860. Resources: North & the South. The Union & Confederacy in 1861.
TheCivil War(1861-1865)ThroughMaps, Charts,Graphs &PicturesSusan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NYNorth vs. South in 1861Rating the North & the SouthSlave/Free States Population, 1861Railroad Lines, 1860Resources: North & the SouthThe Union & Confederacy in 1861Men Present for Duty in the Civil WarOhio Military ServiceSoldiers’ Occupations: North/South CombinedImmigrantsas a %of a State’sPopulationin1860The Leaders of the ConfederacyPres. Jefferson DavisVP Alexander StevensThe Confederate “White House”The Confederate SealMOTTO  “With God As Our Vindicator”A Northern View of Jeff DavisOverviewofthe North’sCivil WarStrategy:“Anaconda”PlanThe “Anaconda” PlanLincoln’s GeneralsWinfield ScottJoseph HookerUlysses S. GrantIrwin McDowellGeorge McClellanGeorge MeadeAmbrose BurnsideGeorge McClellan,Again!McClellan: I Can Do It All!The Confederate Generals“Stonewall” JacksonNathan Bedford ForrestGeorge PickettJeb StuartJames LongstreetRobert E. LeeI. President of the Disunited States of AmericaOn March 4, 1861 Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated president, -- stated there would be no conflict unless the South provoked itA split US brought up questions on Sharing the national debtAllocation of federal resourcesMonroe DoctrineII. SC Assails Fort SumterMost of the forts in the South had relinquished their power to the South save Fort SumterSituationFS is being besieged by confederate troops – supplies were running outLincoln sends supplies by ship – tells the SC governor that only supplies are in the shipIn the eyes of the South – supplies are reinforcementsApril 12, 1861 cannons fired on FS – 34 hrs of non-lethal firing – ordered by PGT Beauregard & Jefferson DavisThe fort surrendered under Major ANDERSONLincoln now called for 75,000 troops On April 19/27 – Lincoln also called for a Blockade of southern portsThe South feeling that Lincoln was waging an aggressive war – was joined by 4 border statesTN, VA, AK, NCCapital of CSA moved from Montgomery to RichmondQuestion of Robert E. Lee Opposed SecessionBelieved slavery to be evilCould not fight against his birthplace of VirginiaHe resigned from the Union as well as 313 officersSouth had a Strong Military Tradition – 7/8 military colleges located in the southNorth had a strong Naval Tradition
  • 3/4ths of naval officers from the north
  • Crews of ships were from the North
  • Most of the Navy’s ships were from the North
  • All but 1 shipyard under Union Control
  • Advantages
  • Many experienced officers
  • Defending Homeland
  • Could produce own food
  • Disadvantages
  • 9 million population – 1/3 enslaved
  • More men had to fight – less working to support war effort
  • South had 1 factory for arms (Tradegar Iron Works)
  • Problems distributing goods – ½ as much rail systems – 1 line east to west
  • South Continued
  • South had little financial reserves – became worse over time
  • Planters in debt
  • Banks had little cash reserve
  • Best chance at revenue (Tariff) – Union blockaded southern ports
  • South resorted to paper $ -- Inflation
  • By the end of the Civil War south had an inflation rate of 9,000% as compared to the North’s 80%
  • 22 million population
  • 80% of nation’s factories were in the north
  • Produced 90% of country’s clothing, tolls, boats, and shoes
  • 93% of pig iron
  • Dupont factories – Delaware – gunpowder
  • Controlled the National Treasury
  • Revenue from Tariffs
  • Banks had large reserves of cash – loaned to government by selling of bonds
  • Legal Tender Act – national currency= paper $
  • Politics of the North
  • Lincoln’s Goal was to PRESERVE THE UNION (not an ABOLITIONIST)
  • War Democrats
  • Peace Democrats (copperheads)
  • Conscription
  • Habeas corpus (suspended in border states)
  • The CSA established a constitution that emphasized a (confederation) form of government – this interfered with Davis’ ability to conduct war
  • The states complained about conscription, suspension of habeas corpus and taxes, -- many states refused to follow federal policies – practicing NULLIFICATION
  • Diplomatic Challenge
  • Outbreak of civil war put the major governments of Europe in a difficult situation
  • North – US did not want Europe to recognize the CSA – did not want Europe to interfere in the war
  • South wanted the exact opposite – placed pressure on Europe by voluntarily not selling cotton on these markets – cost them $
  • May 1861 – British and French will meet with CSA
  • 1st MODERN WAR
  • Tactics
  • Organize troops into tight lines/ columns go on the offensive
  • March towards enemy – firing in mass volleys
  • Get close enough to charge – hand to hand combat
  • Conoidal bullets
  • Trenches/ barricades
  • War of Attrition – wearing down of 1 side through exhaustion of soldiers and resources
  • Early Stages of WarMobilization of Troops
  • 1st months of war – Lincoln was under great pressure to strike against the South
  • General PGT Bouregard (CSA) gathering troops 25 miles south of Washington DC – near Manassas Junction –
  • Lincoln hoped for a quick end to conflict
  • 1st Battle of Bull Run
  • 1st Stage – success for Union – push confederates back past the stream – Bull Run ( Stone Wall Jackson)
  • 2nd stage – success for the South – Confederate reinforcements arrive – Union falls back – retreats
  • Lesson – made it clear to the north that they would need a large well trained army and the war would not be short
  • Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas)July, 1861Attitude concerning War
  • Lincoln calls for 500,000 troops – needed men for 3 years
  • Attitude –
  • CSA – Conscription
  • Union – Bounty
  • Militia Act
  • Naval War
  • April 1861 Lincoln proclaims a blockade on all Southern Ports – by 1862 all ports sealed save Wilmington & Charleston
  • As time went on – blockade successful
  • South used Blockade Runners – helped in shipping goods --- (manufactured products)
  • Shipped much less than before war
  • Britain Interferes
  • Sell two warships to the south – Alabama Claims and the Florida – together --- they sink 102 Union ships ---
  • Farragut Captures New Orleans --- he is placed in charge of 42 warships, and 15,000 foot soldiers under command of Benjamin Butler
  • 60 years old an Veteran of 1812 & Mexican Wars
  • Stages of Battle on the Miss. RiverEarly April Farragut – bombards forts – his attacks failedApril 24th – sailed down MR in Single File LineArrived in New Orleans April 25thSix Days Later Conquered New Orleans** MR under Union Control & Divided CSAWar in the West
  • Under the Command of General Ulysses S. Grant
  • Ordered to take control of the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers and split the east/ west rail lines at Corinth ---
  • Seized Forts Henry & Fort Donaldson
  • Split lines at Corinth
  • *** April 6th 1862 --- Shiloh – Surprise attack by Confederates on Union troops – High Casualties – 20,000 – Grant – desk job
  • Murfreesboro
  • Braxton Bragg – led Confederate troops into KTY – wanted t stage a proconfederate uprising – not successful
  • Defeated at Perryville by Don Carlos Buell – cut rail lines – slow movement into Tennessee – to chase Confederates – Buell replaced – with William Rosecrans – heads south into Tennessee – Bragg attacks the Union at Murfeesboro – 4 day battle -- stalemate
  • War in West going Well for Union
  • Defeated South at New Orleans
  • Captured Rivers
  • Captured Corinth, Perryville, Murfreesboro, Shiloh
  • Blockade of the ports going well
  • Civil War ContinuedWar in the East: 1861-1862George B. McClellan
  • Appointed to lead the army of the Potomac – or the Union army in Virginia
  • McClellan and the slows– he drilled his men for half a year before he went to battle
  • “Seven Days Battle” – a series of battles where the Union forces try to capture Richmond. (June 25 – July 1 1862) victory for the Confederates!
  • Second Battle of Bull Run – another resounding victory for the ConfederateS & now Lee decided to enter into enemy soil
  • McClellan has a tremendous stroke of luck – found Lee’s army orders wrapped around a bunch of cigars
  • ANTIETAM – Bloodiest single day in American history – Casualties totaled more than 26,000 – happened September 17, 1862 in Maryland – Stalemate – Union victory because CSA - retreats
  • Battle of Antietam “Bloodiest Single Day of the War”September 17, 186223,000 casualtiesEmancipation Proclamation – because of the Union victory at Antietam – Lincoln presents to the public his Emancipation Proclamation (Military Tactic)
  • States – slaves are free in all states that are in rebellion against the USA(Union)
  • What about border states?
  • Emancipation in 1863TheEmancipationProclamationThe Southern View of EmancipationAfrican-American Recruiting PosterAfrican-American Recruiting PosterAfrican-Americansin Civil War BattlesBlack Troops Freeing SlavesAugust Saint-Gaudens Memorial to Col. Robert Gould Shaw
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