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Growth of American Colonies I. Colony Policies a. Colonies were vital because they supplied England with food and raw material, and bought English goods. b. England’s economic policy with the colonies was called Mercantilism i. Mercantilism- idea that country should try to keep as much gold, silver, and bullion which would make it wealthier and more powerful 1. Bullion- difference in value between import and export 2. Colonies could only sell to parent country and use parent company ships to tra
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  Growth of American Colonies I.   Colony Policiesa.   Colonies were vital because they supplied England with food and raw material, andbought English goods.b.   England’s economic p olicy with the colonies was called Mercantilismi.   Mercantilism- idea that country should try to keep as much gold, silver, andbullion which would make it wealthier and more powerful1.   Bullion- difference in value between import and export2.   Colonies could only sell to parent country and use parent company shipsto transportii.   England realized this system would greatly benefit themc.   Navigation Actsi.   Colonies could only sell cotton, tobacco and sugar to Englandii.   Colonies had to pay a tax if they wanted to take a product to sell to anothercountryiii.   Had to use English ships to transportd.   In the years following the king tried to tighten control financially, religiously andultimately led to colonists resenting the English throne.II.   Origin of Self Governmenta.   Originally England set up three types of government in the coloniesi.   Proprietaryii.   Charteriii.   Royalb.   Eventually all of the colonies became royal colonies, and the government was runsimilar to the government in Englandc.   Colonies were allowed to vote for colonial legislature which gave them power thatincreased over time.d.   Great Britain (England and Scotland) did not enforce its own policies and therefore usedsalutary neglect to rule the coloniesi.   Salutary neglect- policy to “leave colonies alone”  III.   Diversity in Colony Economya.   Northern (New England)- small towns that were dependent on long distance tradei.   Involved in Triangle Trade  TriangleTrade New England (viaEngland):Export- china,textiles, booksImport- Sugar forrum West Africa:Import: Rumand GunsExports- slavesWest Indies/CaribbeanExport: SugarImport: Slavesb.   Middle- mixture of farming and commerce (large diversity of people because of immigrants arriving)c.   Southern- Farming (tobacco), less towns, majority of the slaves worked in southIV.   Life in the Coloniesa.   White men lived longer, ate better, had more opportunities than in Europei.   Example: Printers like Benjamin Franklinb.   Women were in charge of the household chores (cleaning, cooking, etc) and lived well,but were not equal to menc.   Children did not receive formal schooling (except New England and Puritan influence)i.   Yale, Harvard and William & Mary were only colleges until 1740sV.   Slavery in the Coloniesa.   In the 1700s about 1 out of every 5 people were slavesb.   Slaves were kidnapped from their homeland and transported from Africa on ships thatwere overcrowded, diseased and dirty.c.   Those who survived were sold at auctions to go work on plantations, mainly in thesouthern coloniesd.   Slaves were subject to harsh law and brutal work conditions (temperature, hours)e.   Some slaves were allowed to work independently from the plantation, but were stillslaves, had to send money to the plantation and any children they bore were slavesautomaticallyf.   Laws and Revoltsi.   Restricted travel for slaves in order to limit contact with each other1.   Examples: Could not go on ships or ferried without written pass, couldnot own hogs, strike a white person, carry a cane, could not vote, testifyin court against or marry whites,ii.   There were several instances were small groups of slaves would revolt in thesouth by killing whites and burning buildings.  iii.   Slaves would indirectly revolt by pretending to be sick or not understand whatthey were being toldg.   Some slaves were able to purchase their freedom, but were resided to doing the sametype of work as black slaves.i.   Free Blacks were worse off than slaves because they had to live in poorconditionsVI.   Beginning of Conflicts in the New Worlda.   French and Indiani.   As a result of the population boom and increase of immigrants colonists neededmore land, so they moved west where the French and Native Americans were.ii.   Native Americans were forced onto land of neighboring tribes and the Frenchbecame alarmed so they sent extra troops to defend and build forts.iii.   In time the area of Western Pennsylvania where three rivers came to meetwould become a battleground for the Natives, English and French and the key tocontrolling the region.

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