Westward Expansion & Manifest Destiny

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Westward Expansion & Manifest Destiny. Will a growing nation lead to greater Nationalism or increased Sectionalism?. What is Manifest Destiny?. Definition: belief that the expansion of the US throughout the American continents was both justified and inevitable . Thought of as “God’s will”.
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Westward Expansion & Manifest DestinyWill a growing nation lead to greater Nationalism or increased Sectionalism?What is Manifest Destiny?
  • Definition: belief that the expansion of the US throughout the American continents was both justified and inevitable.
  • Thought of as “God’s will”
  • Back under President Monroe…
  • John Quincy Adams (Secretary of State) made national security & expansion top priorities
  • Remember the Monroe Doctrine!
  • Rush-Bagot Treaty : limited ships in Great Lakes
  • Adams-Onís Treaty (1819)
  • Spain gives Florida to the United States
  • Establishes new border between U.S. and Spanish Territory
  • As we expand…
  • As the United States continues to grow and new states / territories are added slavery will become a major issue & conflict
  • Why?
  • Balance of power
  • Until 1818, the U.S. had been equally divided as 10 free states and 10 slave states
  • Illinois admitted as free state in 1818
  • The Issue of Missouri
  • After Illinois becomes is admitted as free state, most expect Missouri to follow as a slave state
  • Original statehood bill proposed that Missouri be a slave state but must gradually free it’s slaves
  • Passes the House, but fails Senate
  • What now?
  • Henry Clay and others work to resolve the issue
  • Reach a compromise
  • Missouri Compromise (1820)
  • Missouri admitted as slave state
  • Maine admitted as free state
  • Dividing line created for the rest of Louisiana Territory
  • 36°30’ N Parallel line
  • “Missouri Compromise Line”
  • States north of line = free
  • States south of line = slave
  • Missouri is an exception
  • Major Trails
  • The settlers needed routes to travel
  • Many of these were formed along traditional Native American trade routes and trails
  • Oregon Trail
  • Made well-known after missionaries traveled all the way to Oregon
  • Independence, Missouri to Portland, Oregon
  • Santa Fe Trail
  • Stretched from Independence, Missouri to SanteFe, NewMexico
  • 780 miles
  • Much of the stretch was dangerous (Native American attacks, weather, drought, terrain)
  • Western Settlers
  • Even before government action created new territories & states, many Americans left their homes and headed west
  • Why might they want to settle the west?
  • Seemed adventurous!
  • New opportunities
  • Exploration
  • Avoid creditors or the law
  • Religious persecution
  • The Mormon Migration
  • Migrated along the Oregon Trail
  • First established in New York by JosephSmith
  • Faced persecution in New York, Illinois, & Missouri
  • Smith eventually murdered by angry mobs
  • New leader Brigham Young
  • Moves followers out of U.S. territory and settle in Salt Lake City, Utah
  • Speaking of Oregon…
  • The Oregon Territory (not a state yet) was a point of conflict for U.S. and Britain
  • Britain also claimed parts of Maine and Minnesota in the 1840s
  • Webster-Ashburton Treaty (1842) takes care of Maine and Minnesota
  • Continued a “joint occupation” of Oregon
  • James Polk during 1844 election adopts slogan “Fifty-Four Forty or Fight!”
  • Wanted to annex all of Oregon
  • Nations eventually agree to new boundaries
  • Mission System
  • Before Mexican independence in 1821, Native Americans & settlers often encountered “Mexican” populations as a result of Spanish Missions
  • Missions were locations/churches set up by the Spanish crown in order to convert people to Catholicism
  • Missions decline after Mexico’s independence
  • Impact of Independence
  • After Mexican independence:
  • Many Native Americans forced in to labor or they fled
  • Trade opportunities between Mexico and United States
  • Northern provinces (present day Arizona, New Mexico, California, Texas)
  • Mexico found that it was hard to control and protect such a large, spread out piece of land
  • Native American attacks
  • Mexico invited U.S. settlers
  • Land Grants
  • Mexico’s government offered landgrants (give them land!) to empesarios
  • Empesarios then would attract other American settlers to the land
  • American (Anglo) population soon outnumbered the tejanopopulation
  • Tejano = Mexicans living in Texas
  • Stephen F. Austin
  • StephenF. Austin would become one of the most well known empesarios
  • Offered land to over 300 families, each receiving 177 acres of farmland OR 4,000 acres of ranchland
  • Given this success, Presidents JohnQuincyAdams and AndrewJackson both tried to purchase Texas
  • By 1936, Texas population was
  • 3,500 Tejanos
  • 12,000 Native Americans
  • 45,000 Anglo Americans
  • 5,000 African Americans
  • So what exactly “is” Texas now?
  • Calls for Independence
  • Austin had been advocating for greater self-government in Texas
  • Imprisoned on return home from Mexican capital by Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
  • Several rebellions erupted
  • Santa Anna marches troops to San Antonio in an effort to force Texas back under Mexican control
  • In 1835, Texans attack Mexican troops at the Alamo
  • “Remember the Alamo”
  • In response to his forces being driven from the Alamo, SantaAnna attacks Americans at the Alamo and kills many
  • SamHouston, an American “Texan,” leads the Texans in their eventual defeat of Mexico in the BattleofSanJacinto
  • Shoutsof “Remember the Alamo”
  • September 1836, SamHouston becomes president of RepublicofTexas
  • Becomes a state in 1845
  • Polk Pushes War
  • PresidentPolk comes to office in 1844
  • Believes that only way to settle continuedtension with Mexico is through war
  • Annexation of Texas made tensions worse
  • Sectionalism meant different views of war
  • Abolitionists and many northernersopposed expansion and the war
  • Southernersfavored expansion in order to expand slavery
  • War Begins
  • Mexican American War begins when GeneralZacharyTaylor leads U.S. troops to the Rio Grande river
  • Mexico views as violation of their rights and sends troops across the river
  • 9 Americans killed
  • Polk then uses this to convince Congress of the need for war
  • Who “started” it?
  • Not Just Texas!
  • Polk has plans to capture more than just Texas during this war
  • Kearny marches to NewMexico, falls without a single shot fired
  • RepublicofCalifornia
  • Polk once again offers to buy California
  • Instead, group of American settlers led by JohnC. Fremont take control of town of Sonoma
  • Declare independence from Mexico
  • California Gold RushTreaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
  • War ends with the TreatyofGuadalupeHidalgo
  • Sets the Rio Grande as border between U.S. – Mexico
  • Still today
  • U.S. agrees to pay $15 for land that will include
  • Texas
  • California
  • Nevada
  • New Mexico
  • Utah
  • Arizona
  • Parts of Colorado and Wyoming
  • Gadsden Purchase (1853)
  • 5 years later, United States “completes the set” and acquires remaining land of present-day Southwest
  • GadsdenPurchase
  • Establishes current borders
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