Action observation and action imagination: from pathology to the excellent sport performance

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Action observation and action imagination: from pathology to the excellent sport performance. Imitation. Meltzoff & Moore, Science 1977 . Rizzolatti and the Parma’s group: The mirror system. Open problems for Mirror neurons.
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Action observation and action imagination: from pathology to the excellent sport performance Imitation the excellent sport performance Meltzoff & Moore, Science 1977 Rizzolatti the excellent sport performance and the Parma’s group:The mirror system Open problems for Mirror neurons the excellent sport performance
  • Normally is not possible to study single neurons in the human brain, so most evidence for mirror neurons in humans is indirect.
  • The function of the mirror system is a subject of much speculation:
  • Are the neurons active when the observed action is goal-directed? Or is a pantomime of a goal-directed action?
  • How do they “know” that the definite action is goal-directed or is a pantomime of the goal-directed action?
  • The primary motor cortex (M1) the excellent sport performance
  • M1 may have a role in action recognition and skill acquisition
  • Imagery (a cognitive process that involves multiple areas) may lead to potentiation of output from M1 (which is involved directly in execution)
  • We may expand the knowledge about the role for forward models
  • Action observation and imagination the excellent sport performance
  • The motor cortex “resonates” for
  • Muscle specific activation
  • Body’s parts
  • Task parameters
  • direction-amplitude, object’s dimensions
  • Internal action simulation
  • Action prediction
  • correct vs erroneous
  • fake movements
  • Motor Cortex the excellent sport performance To obtain evidence of motor cortex activity during observation and imagination of different movements TMS-EMG the excellent sport performance Muscle specificity the excellent sport performance Imagine …Observe… the excellent sport performance Control FDI ADM EIP Muscle-specific for action observation and imagination the excellent sport performance FirstDorsalInterosseus AbducturDigitiMinimi ExtensorIndicisProprius Bufalari et al. Biol. Psych. 2010 Romani et al., Neuroimage, 2005 Distonic the excellent sport performance hand Observing pathological actions the excellent sport performance Fiorio et al. Neuroscience, 2010 FDI Muscle the excellent sport performance Fiorio et al. Neuroscience, 2010 Task Parameters the excellent sport performance FLD FDI ADM Imagine to hold a sphere Hold a sphere Cesari et al. Neuropsychologia 2011 Small Spheres the excellent sport performance Imagination Actual Action Cesari et al. Neuropsychologia 2011 Medium spheres the excellent sport performance Actual Action Imagination Cesari et al. Neuropsychologia 2011 Large Spheres the excellent sport performance Actual Action Imagination Cesari et al. Neuropsychologia 2011 the density the excellent sport performance Imagination Actual Action density the excellent sport performance Imagination Actual Action Cesari et al. Neuropsychologia 2011 Movement direction and amplitude the excellent sport performance Pizzolato et al. Neuroscience 2012 Clockwise Direction the excellent sport performance Small Amplitude Large Amplitude Counter Clockwise Direction Pizzolato et al. Neuroscience 2012 Imagination the excellent sport performance Actual Action FDI ADM FLD Pizzolato et al. Neuroscience 2010 Muscle specificity the excellent sport performance FirstDorsalInterosseus AbducturDigitiMinimi ExtensorIndicisProprius Bufalari et al. Biol. Psych. 2010 Romani et al., Neuroimage, 2005 Results: the two hemispheres the excellent sport performance Inherent capacity to recognize the excellent sport performanceother people’s actions Observing Performing Perfectioning These motor ideas may provide the neurobiological basis for space representation and understanding of actions made by others It may be hypothesized that motor knowledge can be used to anticipate a sequence of actions when perceiving human motion. We may use predictive mechanisms which require pre-selection of relevant sensory information -- like athletes do! A space representation and understanding of actions made by othersthletes vs sport-journalist/non-athlets Observer Specificvs non-specific Sport action Action Observed Psychophysics/TMS Measures Combining the two areas of research: Bridging the gap between psychological research on experties and neuroscintific models of the basic mechanism that support sporting success Weaskedwhetherthereis a correlationbetween the ability to perform and to recognize an action Players space representation and understanding of actions made by others Journalists Non-Players Aglioti et al. Nature Neuroscience 2008 Players space representation and understanding of actions made by others Journalists Non-Players Aglioti et al. Nature Neuroscience 2008 Aglioti space representation and understanding of actions made by others et al. Nature Neuroscience 2008 The wrist angle different between IN and OUT at the instant of the ball throw The knee angle different between IN and OUT at the very beginning of the action Aglioti of the ball throw et al. Nature Neuroscience 2008 Tomeo of the ball throw et al.Cerebral Cortex 2012 Tomeo of the ball throw et al.Cerebral Cortex 2012 Tomeo of the ball throw et al.Cerebral Cortex 2012 van of the ball throwUlzen et al. Social Neuroscience 2013 van of the ball throwUlzen et al. Social Neuroscience 2013
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