An introduction to immunology

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Seminar Winter Semester 2002/2003. An introduction to immunology. Aim: A very general introduction to immunology. Explain how molecular interactions are essential for the immune system. Why: Several articles in this seminar deals with interaction between molecules in the immune system.
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SeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003An introduction to immunology
  • Aim: A very general introduction to immunology. Explain how molecular interactions are essential for the immune system.
  • Why: Several articles in this seminar deals with interaction between molecules in the immune system.
  • Some extra motivation why studies of biomolecular interactions are important.
  • Pierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003Outline of the talk
  • Definition of Immunology
  • History of immunology
  • Innate and adaptive immunity
  • Humoral and cellular responses – B and T cells (specific interactions)
  • Cancer
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Pierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003Immunology
  • Immunology is the study of our protection from foreign macromolecules or invading organisms and our responses to them.
  • Host – e.g. me!!!!
  • Foreign macromolecule, antigen – e.g. virus protein, worm, parasite (Everything that should not be in my body)
  • Pierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003A Short History of Immunology
  • ~ 430 B.C: Peloponesian War, Thucydides describes plague – the ones who had recovered from the disease could nurse the sick without getting the disease a second time
  • 15th centurry: Chinese and Turks use dried crusts of smallpox as ”vaccine”
  • 1798: Edward Jenner – smallpox vaccine
  • Pierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003Jenner - Smallpox vaccine
  • Noticed that milkmades that had contracted cowpox did NOT get smallpox
  • Test on an 8 year old boy, injected cowpox into him (NOT very nice……)
  • Follwed by exposure to smallpox
  • Vaccine was invented (latin vacca means ”cow”)
  • Pierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003Pierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003Immunology history cont.
  • Since 1901 there have been 19 Nobel Prizes for immunological research.
  • Examples: Discovery of human blood groups (1930) and Transplantation immunology(1991)
  • Pierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003Innate (non-specific) immunityAdaptive (specific) immunityThe immune systemImmune system
  • Anatomic barriers (Skin,mucous membranes)
  • Physological barriers (temperature, pH)
  • Phagocytic Barriers (cells that eat invaders)
  • Inflammatory barriers (redness, swelling, heat and pain)
  • Antigen specificity
  • Diversity
  • Immunological memory
  • Self/nonself recognition
  • Pierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003Humoral and cellular immunity(antibody mediated or cellular)Pierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003Antibody secreting B cellAntigenSoluble antibodies, circculate in the bodyB cellsSurface bound antibodyB-cellPierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003B-cellAntibody secreting B cellVirus killedPierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003T cells
  • Two types:
  • Helper T cells (Th): activates other cells
  • Cytotoxic T cells (Tc): can kill other cells
  • T cells can only recognize antigens associated with certain molecules (MHC)
  • Pierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003Presentation of antigens to T cells
  • Proteins (peptides) from inside the cell are presented by MHC I molecules to Tc cells.
  • Proteins (peptides) from the outside of cells are presented by MHC II molecules to Th cells.
  • MHC I on almost all cells
  • MHC II on specialized antigen-presenting cells
  • Pierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003Antigen presentig cellMHC II + peptideThVirus infected cell, cancer cellTcMHC I + peptidePierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003Pierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003Pierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003MHC molecules
  • Important to study what parts of a protein that binds to MHC molecules.
  • MHC I binds peptides with 8-10 aa
  • MHC II bind peptides with 12-25 aa
  • Potentials of peptide vaccines
  • Prediction of peptides is important!!!!
  • Pierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003Cancer
  • The second ranking cause of death after heart disease in the Western world.
  • most organs and tissues in an organism are in balance (death and renewal)
  • cancer cells have no control in growth mechanisms, can expand to a large size producing a tumor
  • Pierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003HIV and AIDS
  • HIV – Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • AIDS - Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
  • HIV virus binds to Th cells and causes the number of Th cells to decrease.
  • When the number of Th cells is too low, you have AIDS.
  • Pierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003Pierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003Pierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003Pierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003Pierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003Treatment strategies
  • Inhibit different stages of the lifecycle.
  • HIV protease inhibitors.
  • Peptide Vaccines
  • Pierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003Pierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003Pierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003Problems with HIV/AIDS
  • - No major resistant population
  • - Disease progresses even with ‘protective IR’
  • - No knowledge of what IR is protective
  • - How to elicit a protective IR?
  • - Provirus prevents total eradication
  • - Resistance depends on HIV exposure
  • - No suitable animal model
  • - Legal impediments to prophylactic approach
  • Clinical trial ethical problems
  • - HIV clades – can’t have a worldwide approach
  • Pierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deSeminarWinter Semester 2002/2003Papers in the seminar!!!!
  • Detailed ab initio prediction of lysozyme-antibody complex with 1.6 Å accuracy (Thomas)
  • A Structure-Based Algorithm to Predict Potential Binding Peptides to MHC I Molecules with Hydrophobic Binding Pockets (Edilson)
  • Prediction of MHC II-binding peptides using an evolutionary algorithm and artificial neural networks (Esteban)
  • Pierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.deDatePerson(s) talkingSeminarWinter Semester 2002/200330/10/02Pierre, Andreas, Annette06/11/02Shah, Jamaialam; Andreas13/11/02No seminar20/11/02Josiane, Xavia Pareira; Pierre27/11/02Zhu, Hongbo; Raneru, Srinivas04/12/02De Aguiar, Edilson; Binsl, Thomas11/12/02No seminar18/12/02No seminarChristmas Holiday 08/01/03Hofmann, Andreas; Graf, Cosima ;Annette15/01/03Kaspar, Melanie; Walter, Peter22/01/03Kunz, Kerstin; Andres, Daniel 29/01/03Hussong, René; Yasir, Iqbal05/02/03Madrigal-Mova, Cristian; Leon-Soto, Esteban12/02/03Abdelhak, Bellamou; Safdar, Ali19/02/03Hutter, Barbara; Bingding, Huang Pierre Dönnespierre@bioinf.uni-sb.deAndreas Hildebrandtanhi@bioinf.uni-sb.deAnnette Höglundannette@bioinf.uni-sb.de
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