Avoiding Plagiarism

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Avoiding Plagiarism. Why Might You Use Outside Sources?. Background information Evidence (e.g., examples, statistics, expert testimony, etc.) Opposing arguments (Note: claims and explanations are usually your own ideas). How Can You Use Outside Sources?. “Direct Quotations” Paraphrases
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Avoiding Plagiarism Why Might You Use Outside Sources?
  • Background information
  • Evidence (e.g., examples, statistics, expert testimony, etc.)
  • Opposing arguments (Note: claims and explanations are usually your own ideas)
  • How Can You Use Outside Sources?
  • “Direct Quotations”
  • Paraphrases
  • Summaries
  • What are Citations? Citations tell the reader that:
  • An idea is from an outside source,
  • Which source it’s from, and
  • Where in the source we can find the information. For Example: In “Public Education,” Ben Johnson argues that “the budget crisis has severely damaged our public education system”(132). In-text citation Johnson, Ben. “Public Education.” Sociology of Education 80.3 (2007): 112-142. JSTOR. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. Works cited
  • When you use words/ideas from an outside source, you almost always have to cite them, or it could be considered plagiarism. What is Plagiarism?
  • Stealing or passing off as one's own the ideas or words of another
  • Using a creative production without crediting the source
  • Which of the Following are Plagiarism?
  • Turning in someone else’s work as your own
  • Copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit
  • Paraphrasing a source without giving credit
  • Failing to put another author’s exact words in quotation marks
  • Giving incorrect information about a source
  • Turning in work you’ve already written for another assignment/class
  • What Are the Consequences?
  • Rewriting the assignment
  • “F” on the assignment
  • “F” in the class
  • Expulsion from the college
  • What determines the severity of the consequences? How Can You Avoid Plagiarism?
  • Take careful notes while researching.
  • Understand what constitutes plagiarism.
  • Know MLA format.
  • Be meticulous.
  • WHEN IN DOUBT, CITE!
  • Some Rules… What to cite and what not to cite What Information from Sources Do You ALWAYS Have to Cite?
  • Exact words from a source
  • Use “quotation marks”
  • Opinions of others (that you did not hold before reading the source)
  • Specific information from a source
  • If you want to cite specific information from memory, find a reliable source to credit it to.
  • What Information from Sources Do You NOT Have to Cite? Never cite:
  • Opinions you previously held; your ideas, observations, etc.
  • Common knowledge. Problems with “common knowledge?”
  • Vague
  • Can change depending on:
  • The author (you)
  • The field/topic
  • The instructor
  • The university
  • What is “Common Knowledge?” 2 Common Perspectives:
  • Cite almost everything:
  • Don’t cite: very general facts, ideas, and observations that are known by most people (e.g., proverbs, social norms/truisms, very common and undisputed facts/rules, etc.)
  • Cite: somewhat specific and undisputed facts, statistics, disputed facts, others’ opinions
  • 5 Encyclopedia Rule:
  • Don’t cite: very general facts, ideas, and observations that are known by mostpeople; undisputed facts
  • Cite:disputed facts/opinions, statistics, others’ opinions
  • What to Cite Overview… A Note about Undisputed Facts
  • Example of an undisputed fact: Alfred Hitchcock directed Notorious in 1946.
  • Caution: sometimes people assume that encyclopedias will agree on a “fact,” when they actually don’t.
  • Example: Betsy Ross created the first flag of the United States of America. Very disputed
  • Remember, you always need to cite…
  • Exact words from a source
  • Opinions of others (that you did not hold before reading the source)
  • Specific information that you cannot find in 5 encyclopedias (and sometimes information that you can find in 5 encyclopedias)
  • So What Should You Do? Consider…
  • Where the information came from (e.g., your own mind, a past lecture, an article, one encyclopedia, 5 encyclopedias etc.)
  • What your teacher considers “common knowledge,”
  • How controversial the information is, and
  • How common the information is.
  • When in doubt, CITE!! Avoiding Plagiarism Quiz
  • Do you have to cite each of the following?
  • Direct quotations Y/N
  • Paraphrases Y/N
  • Summaries Y/N
  • What do you never have to cite?
  • What do you always have to cite?
  • How can you avoid plagiarism?
  • Avoiding Plagiarism Game!
  • Decidewhether or not the following information from outside sources should be cited. (Hint: There is not always one right answer. Answers will depend on different factors.)
  • Explain your answers (consider the two perspectives).
  • The first team to answer them all correctly wins!
  • Each of the following pieces of information was taken from an outside source. For each item, (1) state whether or not it would need to be cited (Y/N) and (2) explain why or why not.
  • “George Washington was the first president of the United States” (Encyclopedia Britannica). Y/N (explain)
  • “George Washington was born in 1732” (MSN Encarta). Y/N (explain)
  • The city Kolkata (Calcutta) was founded on August 24, 1690 (Kolkata.org). Y/N (explain)
  • “A penny saved is a penny earned” (Ben Franklin). Y/N(explain)
  • Kobe Bryant’s number is 24 (Chicago Tribune). Y/N(explain) 
  • Kobe Bryant scored 1,970 points last season, averaging 27 points per game (Smith 4). Y/N(explain)
  • The Hornets’ biggest mistake was letting Kobe Bryant leave (Smith). Y/N (explain)
  • According to Freud, the id, the ego, and the super-ego are the three parts of a person’s psyche (112). Y/N(explain)
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