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    Byzantine Art among Greeks and Latins in Southern ItalyAuthor(s): Hans BeltingSource: Dumbarton Oaks Papers,  Vol. 28 (1974), pp. 1-29Published by: Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard UniversityStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1291353Accessed: 11-02-2018 13:04 UTC   JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a widerange of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity andfacilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available athttp://about.jstor.org/terms Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University   is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize,preserve and extend access to Dumbarton Oaks Papers This content downloaded from 87.77.156.236 on Sun, 11 Feb 2018 13:04:13 UTCAll use subject to http://about.jstor.org/terms   BYZANTINE ART  AMONG GREEKS AND LATINS  IN SOUTHERN ITALY  HANS BELTING This content downloaded from 87.77.156.236 on Sun, 11 Feb 2018 13:04:13 UTCAll use subject to http://about.jstor.org/terms   This article is the unchanged version of a lecture delivered  on May 3, 1973 during the Symposium Art, Letters, and Society in Byzantine Provinces held at Dumbarton Oaks.  Any title which has been published or has come to my knowl- edge after that date is not included here. This content downloaded from 87.77.156.236 on Sun, 11 Feb 2018 13:04:13 UTCAll use subject to http://about.jstor.org/terms   T is an irony of history that Byzantine art in Southern Italy gained  influence on a large scale just a few years after Byzantine rule had come  to an end. Bari, the capital of the Byzantine provinces in Italy, sur-  rendered in 1067 to the Normans.' Four years later, the new basilica decorated  by Byzantine mosaicists summoned from Constantinople was dedicated at  Monte Cassino.2 Today, Byzantine art in Southern Italy is best documented  in Latin church decorations painted either by Latin artists copying Greek  models, or by Greek artists hired, or even captured, by Latin patrons such  as the Norman Kings of Sicily.3 Even the Greek monasteries of Calabria present themselves in what seems  to be an architectural style of the age of the Norman conquerors.4 The question of date has not yet been settled for San Marco at Rossano, nor for the Cattolica  at Stilo, which might have been a parish church.5 One of the foremost Basilian monasteries of Calabria, the Patirion, was founded not under Greek, but under  Norman rule.6 Though I do not intend to deal with architecture, but only  with the figurative arts, I wish to recall here the well-known fact that the  large size of the church buildings of the Greek monasteries in Calabria, as  well as some of their architectural forms, may be explained by the need to  compete with the new Benedictine monasteries of the Norman era in the neighborhood. In short, it is not the monuments of the second Byzantine  period, covered roughly by the two centuries between 871 and 1067, but  1 For general information on the history of Byzantine rule in Southern Italy between the 9th and  11th centuries, cf. J. Gay, L'Italie mdridionale et l'empire byzantin depuis l'avdnement de Basile I r  jusqu'd la prise de Bari par les Normans (867-1071), BEFAR, 90 (Paris, 1904); Vera von Falken-  hausen, Untersuchungen ilber die byzantinische Herrschaft in Siiditalien vom 9. bis ins 11. Jahrhundert,  Schriften zur Geistesgeschichte des 6stlichen Europa, 1 (Wiesbaden, 1967); A. Guillou, Studies on  Byzantine Italy, Variorum Reprints (London, 1970).  2 Cf. H. Bloch, Monte Cassino, Byzantium, and the West in the Earlier Middle Ages, DOP, 3  (1946), 163ff., esp. 193ff.; H. R. Hahnloser, Magistra Latinitas und peritia graeca, in Festschrift fiir Herbert von Einem zum 16. Februar 1965 (Berlin, 1965), 77ff.; see, for further information and  for a reflection of the Cassinese program in the cathedral of Salerno, E. Kitzinger, The first mosaic decoration of Salerno Cathedral, JOB, 21 = Festschrift fiir Otto Demus zum 70. Geburtstag (Vienna,  1972), 149ff.  S80. Demus, The Mosaics of Norman Sicily (London, 1949), 369ff. The first general survey of  Byzantine art in Southern Italy, seen from a sociological point of view, is that of A. Guillou, Art et  religion dans l'Italie grecque m6di6vale, in La chiesa greca in Italia dall' VIII al XVI s. (Padua,  1973), 725-58.  4 P. Orsi, Le chiese basiliane della Calabria (Florence, 1929); C. A. Willemsen and D. Odenthal,  Kalabrien. Schicksal einer Landbriicke (Cologne, 1966); A. Venditti, Architettura bizantina nell'Italia meridionale: Campania, Calabria e Lucania, Collana di storia dell' architettura; ambiente, urbanistica, arti, 2 vols. (Naples, 1967). For the Benedictine monasteries, cf. the basic study by H. M. Schwarz,   Die Baukunst Kalabriens und Siziliens im Zeitalter der Normannen, I, R6misches Jahrbuch fiir  Kunstgeschichte, 6 (1942), 1-112.  r For San Marco, cf. Willemsen and Odenthal, op. cit., 95ff., and Venditti, op. cit., II, 860ff. and  figs. 500-6; for Stilo, cf. Orsi, op. cit., 113ff., Willemsen and Odenthal, op. cit., 81ff. and pls. 119-23, and Venditti, op. cit., II, 852ff. and figs. 493-99.  8 Orsi, op. cit., 113ff., Willemsen and Odenthal, op. cit., 101ff. with pls. 145-51 and figs. 54-56, Venditti, op. cit., II, 930ff. with figs. 552-58, and A. H. S. Megaw, in Xapiorpliov Fi- 'A. 'OpadvSov, III (Athens, 1964), 10-22. For the history, cf. also P. Battifol, L'abbaye de Rossano. Contribution d  l'histoire de la Vaticane (Paris, 1891), 1ff. and 27ff. This content downloaded from 87.77.156.236 on Sun, 11 Feb 2018 13:04:13 UTCAll use subject to http://about.jstor.org/terms
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