Biology Final Exam

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Biology Final Exam . Review Challange. Match the definition to the correct term. a . genes b. haploid c. diploid d . meiosis e. polyploidy. segments of DNA on chromosomes that control the production of proteins.
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Biology Final Exam Review Challange Match the definition to the correct term.a. genes b. haploid c. diploid d. meiosis e. polyploidy
  • segments of DNA on chromosomes that control the production of proteins
  • Match the definition to the correct term.a. genes b. haploid c. diploid d. meiosis e. polyploidy
  • cell division in which one cell divides into four haploid gametes, creates sex cells
  • Match the definition to the correct term.a. genes b. haploid c. diploid d. meiosis e. polyploidy
  • a cell with two complete sets of chromosomes (2n), ex. cell with 46 chromosomes in humans
  • Match the definition to the correct term.a. genes b. haploid c. diploid d. meiosis e. polyploidy
  • condition in which cells have one or more extra sets of chromosomes
  • Match the definition to the correct term.a. genes b. haploid c. diploid d. meiosis e. polyploidy
  • a cell with one set of chromosomes (n), ex. cell with 23 chromosomes in humans
  • Match the definition to the correct term.a. alleles b. dominant trait c. recessive trait d. genotype e. phenotype
  • form of a trait that is masked by another form of the trait
  • Match the definition to the correct term.a. alleles b. dominant trait c. recessive trait d. genotype e. phenotype
  • alternative forms of a single gene
  • Match the definition to the correct term.a. alleles b. dominant trait c. recessive trait d. genotype e. phenotype
  • genetic appearance of the allele pairs present in an organism (i.e. what letters are used such as Tt)
  • Match the definition to the correct term.a. alleles b. dominant trait c. recessive trait d. genotype e. phenotype
  • outward appearance and observable characteristics of an allele pair in an organism (i.e. what does the organism look like such as tall or short)
  • Match the definition to the correct term.a. alleles b. dominant trait c. recessive trait d. genotype e. phenotype
  • form of a trait that masks (covers up) other forms of a trait and is passed on to the next generation
  • Meiosis is essential to the reproduction of a species. Which of the following is not true about meiosis?
  • crossing over between homologous chromosomes during meiosis helps create genetic diversity
  • meiosis reduces the number of chromosomes in a cell in half
  • meiosis is used by an organism for growth and to replace damaged cells
  • meiosis involves two separate cell divisions
  • Gregor Which of the following is not true about meiosis? Mendel used trends and traits he saw in ___?___ to develop the rules of basic genetics.
  • tomato plants
  • Humans
  • Rabbits
  • pea plants
  • The figure above shows homologous chromosomes. What are homologous chromosomes?
  • pairs of chromosomes in the same cell that carry genes for different traits
  • pairs of chromosomes in the same cell that carry genes for the same traits
  • chromosomes from different cells that carry genes for the same traits
  • chromosomes from different cells that carry genes for different traits
  • Diagrams like the one above are used to trace the inheritance of a particular trait within a family. What are diagrams such as this called?
  • phylogenic chart
  • pedigree
  • Cladogram
  • evolutionary tree
  • Down syndrome was one of the earliest known genetic disorders. Also known as trisomy 21, Down syndrome results when a baby is born with an extra chromosome 21. This extra chromosome is caused when the chromatids fail to separate properly during meiosis. What is the term used to describe this improper separation of chromatids.
  • nondisjunction
  • codominance
  • Amniocentesis
  • karyotype
  • Color blindness is more common in males because it is a sex-linked trait. What does it mean that color blindness is sex linked?
  • there are several different alleles that control for the trait
  • neither of the alleles for color blindness are dominant over the other
  • the genes for color blindness are located on the X chromosome but are not found on the Y chromosome
  • one allele for color blindness hides the effects of the other allele
  • Which of the following kingdoms does not belong to the Domain Eukarya?
  • Kingdom Animalia
  • Kingdom Bacteria
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Protista
  • All animals that have a backbone are known as ___ Domain ?___.
  • vertebrates
  • mammals
  • Invertebrates
  • sponges
  • If snapdragon flowers have a genotype of RR, they have red flowers. If the genotype is rr, the flowers are white. If the genotype is heterozygous (Rr), the flowers are pink.
  • If a red flowered snapdragon is crossed with a white flowered snapdragon, all of the offspring will have pink flowers. This is an example of ____?____.
  • codominance
  • multiple alleles
  • incomplete dominance
  • recessive genetics
  • If snapdragon flowers have a genotype of RR, they have red flowers. If the genotype is rr, the flowers are white. If the genotype is heterozygous (Rr), the flowers are pink.
  • If you crossed two pink snapdragons as in the Punnett square above. What percentage of offspring would be white?
  • 0 %
  • 50 %
  • 25 %
  • 75 %
  • What is the correct order for the taxonomic hierarchy from largest, least specific group to smallest, most specific group?
  • Kingdom, phylum, class, order, genus, species, family
  • Phylum, class, kingdom, order, family, genus, species
  • Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
  • Species, genus, family, phylum, class, order, kingdom
  • Bacteria are single celled organisms that do not have a nucleus or other organelles. These types of organisms are known as ___?___.
  • eukaryotes
  • viruses
  • simple organisms
  • prokaryotes
  • Which of the following is true about the scientific names of organisms?
  • The scientific name is used because common names can often lead to confusion or be misleading
  • The scientific name is made up of the genus and species name of an organism
  • The scientific name is italicized when printed in a book and underlined when handwritten
  • All of the above
  • How is a species defined according to the biological species concept?
  • A species is a group of organisms that can reproduce in nature and have fertile offspring
  • A species is any group of organisms that share similar physical characteristics
  • A species is a group of organisms that have evolved from the same ancestral population
  • None of the above
  • Most invertebrate animals have a hard, tough outer covering that provides support. This covering is called a ___?___.
  • exoskeleton
  • notochord
  • Endoskeleton
  • vertebrae
  • Match the animal below with the correct phylum to which it belongsa. Cnidaria b. Platyhelminthesc. Nematodad. Mollusca e. Annelida
  • octopus and clams
  • Match the animal below with the correct phylum to which it belongsa. Cnidaria b. Platyhelminthes c. Nematodad. Mollusca e. Annelida
  • dog heart worms
  • Match the animal below with the correct phylum to which it belongsa. Cnidaria b. Platyhelminthes c. Nematodad. Mollusca e. Annelida
  • earthworms
  • Match the animal below with the correct phylum to which it belongsa. Cnidaria b. Platyhelminthes c. Nematodad. Mollusca e. Annelida
  • jellyfish and sea anemones
  • Match the animal below with the correct phylum to which it belongsa. Cnidaria b. Platyhelminthes c. Nematodad. Mollusca e. Annelida
  • tapeworm
  • Within a decade of the introduction of a new insecticide, nearly all of the descendants of the target insects are resistant to the usual-sized dose. What is the most likely explanation for this change in susceptibility to the insecticide?
  • Eating the insecticide caused the insects to become more resistant to it.
  • Eating the insecticide caused the insects to become less resistant to it.
  • The pesticide destroyed organisms that cause disease in the insects, thus allowing them to live longer.
  • The insects developed physiological adaptations resulting in the insects evolving to be resistant to the insecticide.
  • Which answer nearly all of the descendants of the target insects are resistant to the usual-sized dose. What is the most likely explanation for this change in susceptibility to the insecticide?best shows an animal's adaptation to the tropical rain forest?
  • camouflage in a tree frog
  • an elephant's long trunk
  • the long neck of a giraffe
  • migration of birds in winter
  • Which of the following is the correct way to write the scientific name of the Northern cardinal?
  • cardinaliscardinalis
  • cardinalisCardinalis
  • Cardinaliscardinalis
  • CardinalisCardinalis
  • How do fossils demonstrate evidence of evolution? scientific name of the Northern cardinal?
  • They show that ancient species share similarities with species now on Earth.
  • They show evidence of species that are now extinct.
  • They are the primary source of evidence of natural selection.
  • Fossils reveal that many species have remained unchanged for millions of years.
  • Darwin reasoned that some competitors in the struggle for scientific name of the Northern cardinal?existance would be better equipped for survival than others. Those better equipped individuals are more likely to survive while those less equipped will die. This is known as the process of __________.
  • artificial selection
  • adaptation
  • variation
  • natural selection
  • The scientific name for the American black bear is scientific name of the Northern cardinal?Ursusamericanus. Identify the genus this bear belongs to.
  • genus americanus
  • genus Ursus
  • genus Ursusamericanus
  • none of the above
  • You are on a scientific expedition in the Amazon rainforest and find an organism that you have never seen before. After doing a little research, you find that the organism is multicellular and has eukaryotic cells. It gets its nutrition by decomposing and absorbing dead organic material in its environment. What kingdom does this organism belong to?
  • Animalia
  • Eubacteria
  • Fungi
  • Plantae
  • What is the name of the system used to give each species of organism a scientific name made up of the genus and species names of the organism.
  • taxonomic heirarchy
  • binomial nomenclature
  • binomial taxonomy
  • classification nomenclature
  • Which of the following is not a characteristic of all arthropods?
  • all arthropods have an exoskeleton
  • all arthropods reproduce asexually
  • all arthropods have segmented or sectioned bodies
  • all arthropods have jointed appendages
  • What is the name given to an organism with an endoskeleton and a backbone?
  • Invertebrate
  • mammal
  • Vertebrate
  • echinoderm
  • A crayfish is an example of an organism with ___ and a backbone??____ symmetry.
  • Radial
  • bilateral
  • Asymmetry
  • none of the above
  • Which structure physically breaks down food in the earthworm digestive tract?
  • Pharynx
  • gizzard
  • Crop
  • clitellum
  • Which of the following is not one of the major groups of arthropods?
  • crustaceans
  • arachnids
  • insects
  • turtles
  • The nucleotide base sequence of a strand of DNA is TAC-CGG-AGT. What is the sequence of the complementary DNA strand?
  • TAC-CGG-AGT
  • ACT-GAA-CGA
  • AGT-TCC-TAC
  • ATG-GCC-TCA
  • When penicillin was first introduced, it was very effective in destroying most of the bacteria that cause gonorrhea. Today, certain varieties of this bacterium are resistant to penicillin. Which statement below best explains the appearance of these resistant varieties?
  • Penicillin stimulated the bacteria to become resistant, and this resistance was passed to the offspring.
  • Penicillin killed the susceptible bacteria, while naturally resistant varieties survived and reproduced.
  • Penicillin used today is not as strong as the penicillin used when it was first introduced.
  • Penicillin stimulated the production of antigens in the resistant bacteria.
  • Which statement represents the major concept of the theory of evolution?
  • A new species moves into a habitat when another species becomes extinct.
  • Every period of time in Earth’s history has its own group of organisms.
  • Present-day organisms on Earth developed from earlier, distinctly different organisms.
  • Every location on Earth’s surface has its own unique group of organisms.
  • Birds living in a diverse habitat would have feet that are webbed to varying degrees. Some have no webbing, some have very little webbing, and some have fully webbed feet. What might happen to this population if their environment became increasingly wetter over a long period of time?
  • The population would become more diverse, exhibiting more varieties of feet.
  • The population would become less diverse, with most having fully webbed feet.
  • The population would become less diverse, with most having little to no webbing.
  • The population would remain stable because the variety is appropriate for the habitat.
  • Which statement is true regarding evolution? webbed to varying degrees. Some have no webbing, some have very little webbing, and some have fully webbed feet. What might happen to this population if their environment became increasingly wetter over a long period of time?
  • It involves changes over many generations
  • It is the same as natural selection
  • It only involves artificial selection
  • It occurs within a single generation
  • A scientist studied a specific DNA segment from four different species. The table below shows the base sequence for each species. Species Base Sequence1 CTT ACT GCT2 CTA ACC GGT3 CTT AGT CGT4 CTA ACT GCT According to this table, which two species are most closely related?
  • Species 2 and 4
  • species 2 and 3
  • Species 1 and 3
  • species 1 and 4
  • Which statement is different species. The table below shows the base sequence for each species. not part of the concept of natural selection?
  • individuals that possess the most favorable variations will have the best chance of reproducing
  • genes of an individual adapt to a changing environment.
  • variation occurs among individuals in a population
  • more individuals are produced than will survive.
  • If scientists want to change the characteristics of a plant so that the new characteristics will be passed from generation to generation, they can do so by:
  • altering the hormones that regulate the growth of plants
  • removing the flowers from the plant before pollination occurs
  • altering the genetic message contained in the DNA of the parent plant
  • adding scientifically designed fertilizers to the soil in which the parent plant is growing
  • In the diagram below, a population of mice is evenly divided into two groups.  Each group is placed on an isolated island with no existing mouse population. Which choice below best explains what will happen to the mouse population on Island A and Island B at the end of twenty years?
  • Conditions on Island B favored the brown-furred individuals, while both fur colors were evenly advantaged on Island A.
  • On Island A, the gene for the gray fur was dominant, while on Island B, the gene for the brown fur was dominant.
  • Conditions on Island A favored the gray-furred individuals, while neither group of mice were favored on Island B.
  • D. Conditions on Island A and B did not cause any changes between the population of mice on the two islands.
  • You are exploring the woods behind the school and come across an animal you have never seen before. Upon further inspection you notice this animal has dry, scaly skin, four legs, and a long tail. What type of animal is this?
  • bird
  • reptile
  • mammal
  • amphibian
  • Which of the following is an adaptation that makes it possible for birds to fly?
  • they have feathers
  • the bird skeleton is made of lightweight, hollow bones
  • birds have large, strong breast muscles
  • all of the above
  • Birds and mammals are endothermic. What does it mean to be endothermic?
  • the animal’s body temperature changes as the temperature of the outside environment changes
  • the animal gets its energy by consuming other animals
  • the animal maintains a relatively constant internal body temperature no matter what the temperature of the outside environment is
  • the animal must return to water and lay eggs in the water to reproduce
  • A zoologist comes to your school and shows you a animal known as a wombat. This animal is covered in hair (fur). The zoologist tells you that the wombat young are born undeveloped after a short gestation period. The young then finish developing inside a pouch outside the mother’s body where they feed off milk from the mother’s mammary glands. What type of animal is the wombat?
  • monotreme
  • bird of prey
  • tuatara
  • marsupial
  • Which of the following adaptations allows fish to control its depth in the water?
  • swim bladder
  • paired fins
  • scales
  • gill
  • Which of the following is not one of the major classes of fish?
  • jawless fish
  • cartilaginous fish
  • flat fish
  • bony fish
  • Match the animal with the group to which it belongs. fish?a. bird of prey b. water bird c. monotremed. marsupial d. snake
  • duck
  • Match the animal with the group to which it belongs. fish?a. bird of prey b. water bird c. monotremed. marsupial d. snake
  • platypus
  • Match the animal with the group to which it belongs. fish?a. bird of prey b. water bird c. monotremed. marsupial d. snake python Match the animal with the group to which it belongs. fish?a. bird of prey b. water bird c. monotremed. marsupial d. snake
  • owl
  • Match the animal with the group to which it belongs. fish?a. bird of prey b. water bird c. monotremed. marsupial d. snake
  • opossum
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