Chapter 4

Publish in

Documents

60 views

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 47
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Share
Description
Chapter 4. Skin and Body Membranes. Skin and Body Membranes. Function of body membranes Cover body surfaces Line body cavities Form protective sheets around organs. Classification of Body Membranes. Epithelial membranes Cutaneous membrane Mucous membrane Serous membrane
Transcript
Chapter 4 Skin and Body Membranes Hoban Skin and Body Membranes
  • Function of body membranes
  • Cover body surfaces
  • Line body cavities
  • Form protective sheets around organs
  • Hoban Classification of Body Membranes
  • Epithelial membranes
  • Cutaneous membrane
  • Mucous membrane
  • Serous membrane
  • Connective tissue membranes
  • Synovial membranes
  • Hoban Cutaneous Membrane
  • Cutaneous membrane = skin
  • A dry membrane
  • Outermost protective boundary
  • Superficial epidermis
  • Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
  • Underlying dermis
  • Mostly dense connective tissue
  • Figure 4.1a Hoban Mucous Membranes
  • Surface epithelium
  • Type depends on site:
  • Stratified squamous epithelium (mouth, esophagus)
  • Simple columnar epithelium (rest of digestive tract)
  • Underlying loose connective tissue (lamina propria)
  • Lines all body cavities that open to the exterior body surface
  • Often adapted for absorption or secretion
  • Hoban Hoban Serous Membranes
  • Surface is a layer of simple squamous epithelium
  • Underlying layer is a thin layer of areolarconnective tissue
  • Lines open body cavities that are closed to the exterior of the body
  • Serous membranes occur in pairs separated by serous fluid
  • Visceral layer covers the outside of the organ
  • Parietal layer lines a portion of the wall of ventral body cavity
  • Figure 4.1c Hoban Hoban Serous Membranes
  • Specific serous membranes
  • Peritoneum
  • Abdominal cavity
  • Pleura
  • Around the lungs
  • Pericardium
  • Around the heart
  • Figure 4.1d Hoban Hoban Hoban Connective Tissue Membrane
  • Synovial membrane
  • Connective tissue only
  • Lines fibrous capsules surrounding joints
  • Secretes a lubricating fluid
  • Figure 4.2 Hoban Hoban Integumentary System
  • Skin (cutaneous membrane)
  • Skin derivatives
  • Sweat glands
  • Oil glands
  • Hairs
  • Nails
  • Hoban Hoban Hoban Skin Functions
  • Protects deeper tissues from:
  • Mechanical damage
  • Chemical damage
  • Bacterial damage
  • Thermal damage
  • Ultraviolet radiation
  • Desiccation
  • Hoban Skin Functions
  • Aids in heat regulation
  • Aids in excretion of urea and uric acid
  • Synthesizes vitamin D
  • Hoban Hoban Staphylococcus aureus infection of scalded area Hoban Yuck!!!! Hoban Skin Structure
  • Epidermis – outer layer
  • Stratified squamous epithelium
  • Often keratinized (hardened by keratin)
  • Dermis
  • Dense connective tissue
  • Figure 4.3 Hoban Skin Structure
  • Subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis) is deep to dermis
  • Not part of the skin
  • Anchors skin to underlying organs
  • Composed mostly of adipose tissue
  • Hoban Thick skin Hoban Layer of Epidermis
  • Stratum basale (stratum germinativum)
  • Deepest layer of epidermis
  • Lies next to dermis
  • Cells undergoing mitosis
  • Daughter cells are pushed upward to become the more superficial layers
  • Stratum spinosum
  • Stratum granulosum
  • Hoban Hoban Layer of Epidermis
  • Stratum lucidum
  • Formed from dead cells of the deeper stata
  • Occurs only in thick, hairless skin of the palms of hands and soles of feet
  • Stratum corneum
  • Outermost layer of epidermis
  • Shingle-like dead cells are filled with keratin (protective protein prevents water loss from skin)
  • Hoban Epidermal layers Hoban Layers of the Epidermis
  • Summary of layers from deepest to most superficial
  • Stratum basale
  • Stratum spinosum
  • Stratum granulosum
  • Stratum lucidum (thick, hairless skin only)
  • Statumcorneum
  • Hoban Melanin
  • Pigment (melanin) produced by melanocytes
  • Color is yellow to brown to black
  • Melanocytes are mostly in the stratum basale
  • Amount of melanin produced depends upon genetics and exposure to sunlight
  • Hoban Increased melanin Hoban Dermis
  • Two layers
  • Papillary layer (upper dermal region)
  • Projections called dermal papillae
  • Some contain capillary loops
  • Others house pain receptors and touch receptors
  • Reticular layer (deepest skin layer)
  • Blood vessels
  • Sweat and oil glands
  • Deep pressurereceptors
  • Hoban
  • Overall dermis structure
  • Collagen and elastic fibers located throughout the dermis
  • Collagen fibers give skin its toughness
  • Elastic fibers give skin elasticity
  • Blood vessels play a role in body temperature regulation
  • Hoban Skin Structure Figure 4.4 Hoban Normal Skin Color Determinants
  • Melanin
  • Yellow, brown or black pigments
  • Carotene
  • Orange-yellow pigment from some vegetables
  • Hemoglobin
  • Red coloring from blood cells in dermal capillaries
  • Oxygen content determines the extent of red coloring
  • Hoban Different skin colors Hoban Skin Appendges
  • Cutaneous glands are all exocrine glands
  • Sebaceous glands
  • Sweat glands
  • Hair
  • Hair follicles
  • Nails
  • Hoban Appendages of the Skin
  • Sebaceous glands
  • Produce oil
  • Lubricant for skin
  • Prevents brittle hair
  • Kills bacteria
  • Most have ducts that empty into hair follicles; others open directly onto skin surface
  • Glands are activated at puberty
  • Hoban Chrysler Building NYC Hoban Hoban Appendages of the Skin
  • Sweat glands
  • Produce sweat
  • Widely distributed in skin
  • Two types
  • Eccrine
  • Open via duct to pore on skin surface
  • Apocrine
  • Ducts empty into hair follicles
  • Hoban Apocrine sweat gland Hoban Hoban Sweat and Its Function
  • Composition
  • Mostly water
  • Salts and vitamin C
  • Some metabolic waste
  • Fatty acids and proteins (apocrine only)
  • Function
  • Helps dissipate excess heat
  • Excretes waste products
  • Acidic nature inhibits bacteria growth
  • Odor is from associated bacteria
  • Hoban Hoban Appendages of the Skin
  • Hair
  • Produced by hair bulb
  • Consists of hard keratinized epithelial cells
  • Melanocytes provide pigment for hair color
  • Figure 4.7c Hoban Hair Anatomy
  • Central medulla
  • Cortex surrounds medulla
  • Cuticle on outside of cortex
  • Most heavily keratinized
  • Figure 4.7b Hoban
    Related Search
    We Need Your Support
    Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

    Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

    No, Thanks