Closing: Summarize Standard 1.2 notes.

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Opening : Using your textbook, label the 13 colonies. Then, color the three REGIONS! (each region a different color). Work Period : Review standard 1.1 PPT/CLOZE notes on the road to the revolution.
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Opening: Using your textbook, label the 13 colonies. Then, color the three REGIONS! (each region a different color)Work Period: Review standard 1.1PPT/CLOZE notes on the road to the revolutionStandard: USHC- 1.1 Summarize the distinct characteristics of each colonial region in the settlement and development of British North America, including religious, social, political, and economic differences.**See white board for Standard 1.2Closing:Summarize Standard 1.2 notes.Reasons for Exploration
  • Sea route to Far East  Trade
  • Desire for gold and glory  Money
  • Quest for new lands  Power
  • Adventure  Fame
  • Successful Exploration
  • Invention of the compass  Navigation
  • Printing Press  Mass Publication
  • Joint-Stock Companies  Several Investors
  • Renaissance  Religious to Secular
  • Gunpowder  Control
  • 1.1 The English ColoniesThe English Colonies were divided into three geographical regions.New England ColoniesMassachusettsNew HampshireRhode IslandConnecticutMiddle ColoniesNew YorkNew JerseyPennsylvaniaDelawareSouthern ColoniesMarylandVirginiaNorth CarolinaSouth CarolinaGeorgiaWhy would you want to start a colony?
  • Religion
  • *However, note that religious intolerance actually led to the establishment of the principle of separation of church and state after the American Revolution*
  • To acquire land
  • To improve social and economic standing
  • *The economy of each colonial region depended on its geography, natural resources, and the human capital (workers) available to them.*
  • How do you start a colony?
  • With a charter, of course!
  • Corporate colonies
  • Royal colonies- under the direct authority and rule of the king’s government
  • Proprietary colonies
  • MERCANTILISM: AN ECONOMIC SYSTEM IN WHICH NATIONS SEEK TO INCREASE THEIR WEALTH BY OBTAINING GOLD & SILVER AND WITH A FAVORABLE BALANCE OF TRADEMERCANTILISMNew England Colonies1620s
  • Puritan – reform the Church of England
  • Eliminate Catholic traces
  • Separatists – Pilgrims fled for religious freedom
  • Formed the Plymouth Colony
  • *Wanted religious freedom for themselves, but not for other religious groups*1630
  • Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • Mass. Bay Company Charter
  • John Winthrop – 1st governor
  • Create a new “model” society
  • *There was very little religious tolerance here*New England Colonies
  • Puritans and Natives disputed over land
  • 1637
  • Pequot War
  • Colonists and Narragansett Tribe v. Pequot Tribe
  • Colonists won
  • 1675
  • King Philip’s War
  • Chief Metacom (King Phillip) of Wampanoag
  • Colonists won, but lost hundreds of men
  • New England ColoniesPolitics
  • Diverse political power
  • Puritan male suffrage
  • Church laws controlled the government
  • Drunkenness; swearing; theft; idleness
  • Dissent within the Puritans
  • Roger Williams – Separatist
  • Pay Natives for land
  • Gov’t can’t force religion
  • Fled – formed Providence, RI
  • Mary Hutchison – Puritan
  • Led Bible readings
  • Individuals can interpret the Bible
  • Fled to New Netherland, NY
  • New England ColoniesPolitics
  • Mayflower Compact in Plymouth
  • -Pledged to make decisions based on the will of the majority -Early form of written ConstitutionNew England ColoniesSociety
  • Initially developed an egalitarian society based on religious equality that fostered the development of democratic institutions
  • Rational urban planning
  • Roads, Blocks, Parks, Police patrols, Paved streets, Whale-oil lamps
  • Diverse Immigrants- which caused more class distinctions
  • Women had no rights
  • 1700s
  • Enlightenment – Use of reason and the scientific method to gain knowledge
  • Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson – Used reason to improve society
  • New England ColoniesReligionControlled all aspects of life
  • Gov’t laws based on Puritan laws
  • Societal norms based on Puritan beliefs
  • 1692
  • Salem Witch Trials
  • 25 women killed
  • 150 imprisoned
  • New England ColoniesReligion1730-1740
  • Jonathan Edwards– clergy
  • Admit sin and ask forgiveness from God
  • The Great Awakening
  • Revival meetings
  • 1,000s attended
  • Organized Christian churches
  • Methodist, Baptist
  • Emphasis on higher education
  • So religious freedom for everyone?
  • The Puritans were trying to create a “city upon a hill,” a model of godliness
  • Quakers were persecuted
  • Dissenters were banished- Roger Williams
  • New England ColoniesEconomy
  • Small farms
  • Rocky soil
  • Cold winters
  • Grinding wheat
  • Harvesting fish
  • Sawing lumber
  • Reduced need for slaves
  • Merchants
  • Most powerful group
  • Large cities
  • Manufacturing
  • Middle Colonies1621
  • The Dutch colonized New Netherland
  • 1625
  • New Amsterdam - capital
  • Fairly good relationship with the Natives
  • British saw the Dutch colonies as a “wedge” between the north and south
  • Middle Colonies1664
  • The Duke of York took over the Dutch colonies
  • James – brother of King Charles II of England
  • Proprietor – owner
  • Renamed – New York and New Jersey
  • 1681
  • William Penn – Charter for Pennsylvania
  • Middle ColoniesPolitics
  • Controlled by the church
  • Middle Colonies Religion*There was more religious tolerance and diversity here, but it was still limited*1660s
  • Pennsylvania was home to the Quakers- founded by William Penn
  • God’s “inner light” was in everyone
  • Ministers weren’t needed
  • Simple dress
  • Opposed war
  • Philadelphia, PA
  • “City of Brotherly Love”
  • Middle ColoniesSociety
  • Rational urban planning
  • Diverse Immigrants
  • Women had more rights than in New England or Southern colonies
  • Middle ColoniesEconomy
  • Fertile soil
  • Variety of crops and livestock
  • Wheat, corn, cattle, and hogs
  • Some Quakers owned slaves, but the region was not dependent on slavery
  • Large cities
  • Manufacturing
  • Southern Colonies1607 - 1609
  • John Smith– sea captain
  • Joint-stock company – several investors pooled their money to support a colony
  • Charter – Permission from King
  • The Virginia Company – Jamestown, Virginia
  • 150 colonists (later 600 arrived)
  • Disease; Starvation
  • The Powhatan Tribe sabotaged the colonists
  • 60 survived
  • Southern Colonies1612
  • John Rolfe  tobacco  1.5 mil lbs of “Brown Gold” exported each year by late 1620s
  • 1618
  • Headright System – Receive 50 acres of land for every passage to VA purchased
  • Wealthy bought/sent large numbers of people
  • Indentured Servants – 4 to 7 years of labor in return for passage and food/shelter in Virginia
  • Southern ColoniesPolitics1619
  • House of Burgesses- representative government
  • 1624
  • The Virginia Company couldn’t afford to battle the Natives
  • Virginia became a Royal Colony – under control of the king
  • England sent more troops and supplies
  • 1644
  • 10,000 English colonists in Virginia
  • Southern ColoniesSociety1660s
  • Indentured servants became poor free settlers
  • Had to pay high taxes
  • Disputes between settlers and natives
  • Governor of VA refused to help
  • 1676
  • Nathaniel Bacon – led battle against the natives
  • Declared illegal by the governor
  • Bacon’s Rebellion – revolted against the government
  • No representation for poor settlers- favored large planters
  • Set fire to the town
  • Southern ColoniesSociety*Development of towns and schools was impeded by large land holdings*Mid 1700s
  • Hierarchical social structure developed
  • Plantations were minority
  • Lavish lifestyles
  • Balls; banquets; recitals; parties
  • Women
  • 2nd class citizenship
  • Few legal rights
  • Little education
  • Household duties
  • Southern ColoniesReligion
  • Religion was not a driving force in the Southern Colonies
  • Act of Toleration in Maryland protected the rights of Catholics in Maryland
  • - This shows how intolerant the Puritans were
  • The Church of England was the established church in the South
  • Southern ColoniesEconomy
  • Cash Crop – a crop grown primarily for sale rather than for the farmer’s own use
  • MD; VA; NC  Tobacco
  • SC; GA  Rice and Indigo
  • *Cotton was not a major export at this time*
  • Plantations – large plots of land
  • Produced their own goods
  • No need for large cities or markets
  • Charles Town, SC
  • Southern ColoniesEconomy
  • Slaves – people who were considered the property of others
  • 1690 – 13,000
  • 1750 – 200,000
  • Triangular Trade – three-way trading process
  • Goods from N.E. to Africa
  • Slaves from Africa to Caribbean
  • Raw materials from Caribbean to N.E.
  • Middle Passage – middle leg
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