Damage Illustrations

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Damage Illustrations. Approach. Figure 14: Moderate Damage - Approach Slab Settlement at the Abutment. Note the cracking of the concrete barrier as well. Figure 15: Moderate to Major Damage - Approach Settlement After Northridge.
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Damage Illustrations Approach Figure 14: Moderate Damage - Approach Slab Settlement at the Abutment. Note the cracking of the concrete barrier as well. Figure 15: Moderate to Major Damage - Approach Settlement After Northridge Figure 16: Moderate to Major Damage – Settlement of Bridge Approach Figure 56: Settlement at the bridge approach, likely caused by soil settlement around the abutment (Northridge EQ) Approach: Minor Settlement by soil settlement around the abutment Figure 15: Minor Damage – Parapet Crushing / by soil settlement around the abutmentSpalling Figure 60: Moderate Damage: Transverse Movement of the Abutment Wingwall Settlement at Approach; Abutment Spalling Minor cracking of curb Abutment 100_8779 Serious erosion behind wingwall Abutment 100_8783 superstructure Abutment Figure 57: Moderate Damage – Bowing of Parapet and Handrail Figure 58: Misalignment of curb line and bowing of railing. Notice that the white edge line is slightly shifted at the joint. Figure 17: Severe Damage: Deck Collapse Notice that the white edge line is slightly shifted at the joint. Figure 18 and 19: Severe Damage: Deck Collapse Notice that the white edge line is slightly shifted at the joint. Figure 18 and 19: Severe Damage: Deck Collapse Notice that the white edge line is slightly shifted at the joint. (I-10 and SR 118 Damage from Northridge EQ http://itsdocs.fhwa.dot.gov/jpodocs/repts_te/13775.html) Figure 24: Moderate Damage – Flexural Cracking of Concrete Girder (KTC) Figure 32: Severe Damage: Steel girder buckling Girder (KTC) Figure 28: Moderate Damage: Crack in web of steel girder. Flag condition. Figure 27: Minor Damage - Web stiffener damage. Note paint chipping. Joint – Minor Cracking, Separation chipping. 100_8746 Pounding Damage chipping. Collateral Damage chipping. Collateral Damage chipping. Joints & bearings chipping. Figure 16: Moderate Damage - Vertical and horizontal movement at joint indicates possible bearing or girder displacement and damage Figure 16: Moderate Damage - Vertical and horizontal movement at joint indicates possible bearing or girder displacement and damage 100_8561 Figure 20: Minor Damage: Misaligned Finger Joint movement at joint indicates possible bearing or girder displacement and damage Joint – Minor Cracking, Separation movement at joint indicates possible bearing or girder displacement and damage Figure 21: Minor Damage: Transverse Movement Along the Centerline (Check for bearing damage.) Figure 22: Moderate Damage: Differential Settlement and Expansion Joint Damage Figure 23: Moderate Damage - Expansion Joint DamageSpalled Concrete Figure 49: No Damage: Tilted Rocker Bearings. Movement due to Thermal Loads (INDOT) Figure 53: Severe Damage. Rocker Bearing Failure to Thermal Loads (INDOT) Figure 53: Severe Damage. Rocker Bearing Failure to Thermal Loads (INDOT) Figure 54: Severe Damage. Missing Abutment Bearing After Northridge After Northridge Damage to Anchor Bolts. Mark ‘YES’ for column #4. Northridge Figure 30: Minor Damage. Damage to anchor bolts Northridge Secondary members Northridge Figure 25: Minor Damage - Buckled Bracing Element. Northridge Figure 31: Moderate Damage - Fracture of lower lateral bracing. Soils / geotechnical / foundation bracing. Figure 33: Ground movement indicating possible foundation problem Figure 55: Evidence of Liquefaction near a pier problem Tilted pier wall problem 100_8761 Volcano shaped sand boil is evidence of soil liquefaction problem 100_8752 Substructure problem(Piers & abutments) Figure 34: Minor Damage - Cracking and problemSpalling of the Concrete Cover at the Column Base Figure 37: Severe Damage - Mid-height Flexural Damage problem Figure 36: Moderate Damage - Support damage at top of pier problemMinor Damage – Fascia concrete Figure 35: Moderate Damage - Compression Failure at top of Concrete Column Spalling Concrete Column and splice failures at column base Moderate to Severe Damage - Concrete Column Spalled column, buckling of primary reinforcement, compression failure, and lack of adequate transverse reinforcement to brace the primary reinforcement Figure 38: Concrete Column Severe Damage - Confinement failure Moderate Damage: Column Shear Concrete Column Figure 40: Concrete Column Severe Damage: Brittle Shear Failure Figure 41: Severe Damage: Weld failure of column longitudinal reinforcement Figure 42: Severe Damage: shear failure longitudinal reinforcement (1971 San Fernando Earthquake) Figure 44: Minor Damage: Shear Cracking at the Abutment wing-wall. Figure 47: Moderate Damage: Abutment slumping and rotation failure Figure 48: Moderate Damage: failureSpalling and cracking of abutment, movement at ground level. Note that the rebar is not rusting, an indication that damage is recent. 1994 Northridge Earthquake, California not new damage. As observed in the first image, there is also no damage to the rail curb line, or utilities. Mark ‘No’ for column 6. Figure 61: also no damage to the rail curb line, or utilities. Mark ‘No’ for column 6.Minor Damage to wingwall and end-wall Figure 50: Minor Damage – cracks induced by steel bearing also no damage to the rail curb line, or utilities. Mark ‘No’ for column 6. Other (utilities) also no damage to the rail curb line, or utilities. Mark ‘No’ for column 6. Figure 59: Movement of the trusses at Pier 23 of the San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge during the Loma Prieta earthquake. The shoe (at the right) hit the two pipes that carried electric wires and dented them. These dents indicated that there was at least 3 to 4 inches of movement.
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