ECOLOGY

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ECOLOGY. Ecology – the study of living things and how they react with their environment. Levels of Ecology Organism Ex. 1 stork Population * 2or more of the same s pecies. Ex. 2+ storks Community All of the living things i n an area. Ex. Storks, trees, insects, f ish, worms ….
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ECOLOGY Ecology– the study of living things and how they react with their environment.
  • Levels of Ecology
  • Organism
  • Ex. 1 stork
  • Population
  • * 2or more of the same
  • species.
  • Ex. 2+ storks
  • Community
  • All of the living things
  • in an area.
  • Ex. Storks, trees, insects,
  • fish, worms …
  • Biotic Factors
  • Living things
  • Ex. Plants, animals,
  • fungi, protists, bacteria.
  • Abiotic Factors
  • Non-living things
  • Ex. Temperature, water,
  • sunlight, wind, climate,
  • natural disasters, pollution …
  • (Ecosystem)
  • Biosphere
  • All the ecosystems of
  • the world.
  • Ecosystem
  • All the living & non-living
  • things in an area.
  • Ex. Community + temperature, water, sunlight, rocks, etc.
  • POPULATION INTERACTIONS Predator – prey * one species (predator) hunts and feeds on another species (prey). * displayed as a “Saw-Tooth” graph. * the population of one species is dependent on the population of another species.
  • Predator adaptations include:
  • Acute senses – ex. Heat sensing pits of rattlesnakes, sense of smell in
  • sharks, hearing, etc.
  • Structures such as claws, teeth, fangs, stingers, poisons …
  • Speed and agility
  • Prey adaptations include:
  • Plants – thorns, poisons,
  • Animals – ability to hide, escape,
  • coloration, poisons, mimicry
  • Why is predation important?
  • Helps preserve biodiversity by reducing competition.
  • Ex. Starfish keep the mussel population
  • in check so that the mussels don’t
  • crowd out other species.
  • Competition
  • Organisms will compete for limiting resources.
  • Inter-specific competition – within the same species.
  • Intra-specific competition – among different species.
  • Habitat – the place where an organism lives. Niche – the functional role of a species in the ecosystem. Ie. Its’ job or way of life. *NO TWO SPECIES CAN OCCUPY THE SAME HABITAT AND NICHE * Ex. Loons, Kingfishers, and Herons all live on lakes and eat fish. However, they each hunt fish in a different way.
  • Symbiotic Relationships
  • Symbiosis – two or more species living in a close, long-term relationship.
  • There are 3 types of symbiosis:
  • I. Mutualism - both species benefit from this relationship.
  • Ex. Alligator and the egret.
  • Gets groomed. * Gets food.
  • Ex. Clown fish and sea anemone, shark and cleaner fish, lichen (an algae
  • and a fungus)
  • Commensalism – one species is helped while the other is unaffected. Ex. Barnacles on a whale. Place to live. Don’t care, doesn’t bother whale. Ex. Mites on eyelashes, Spanish moss on trees, poison ivy on trees. Parasitism – one species is helped, the other is harmed. Ex. Mosquito and human. (parasite) (host) Food Slowly eaten Ex. Tapeworms, athlete’s foot, blow flies …
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