Enzymes Forensics

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Enzymes Forensics . Allison, Ronnie, Shyann and Weena. What is Forensics?. Scientific techniques or tests used to investigate crime scenes with the aid of saliva, blood, urine, hair, sweat and other bodily substances. What are Enzymes?.
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Enzymes Forensics Allison, Ronnie, Shyann and Weena What is Forensics? Scientific techniques or tests used to investigate crime scenes with the aid of saliva, blood, urine, hair, sweat and other bodily substances What are Enzymes? Substance produced by living organisms which acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction. Enzymes in Forensics This is when crime scene investigators inspect crime scenes using enzymes. For example, blood, spit, sweat and many more human secretions can be tested to assess how the victim was killed and with what methods. -------------- Enzymes are biomolecules that catalyze important biochemical reactions. Understanding the function of enzymes has allowed scientists to harness their properties to drive specific laboratory processes. Restriction Enzymes
  • Scissors like enzymes that “cut” DNA at specific known DNA sequences
  • The separated pieces have single stranded “sticky pads” which allow the complementary pieces to combine
  • There are 3 main types
  • type I, type 2, type 3
  • Three main types of Restriction Enzymes Blood Typing
  • Blood is the most common and well known evidence
  • Dried blood cells split open causing clumping patterns,this makes it hard to identify blood types
  • Blood enzymes are proteins that accelerate biochemical processes related to the heart or blood. ex. Cardiac Enzymes
  • These enzymes do not change making it possible to identify individuals unique genetic markers allowing us to determine the individual’s role in the crime
  • Saliva Samples
  • Saliva is composed of water, enzymes, mucus, and epithelial cells from the inside of the cheeks, which makes it ideal for DNA profiling
  • A saliva sample has become the most common form when carrying out DNA-testing.
  • Saliva tests can reveal certain viral infections, and the presence of therapeutic as well as illicit drugs.
  • Saliva is rich in amylase an enzyme that breaks down complex carbohydrates into smaller sugar molecules
  • Useful for forensics because through catalyse, it can be decided on whose saliva it is i.e victim or killer
  • Bone, Teeth, Hair and Urine
  • Bone makes up the skeleton, using minerals calcium carbonate) and collagen. The structure makes it resistant to decay, physical attributes like size, shape, and injury location are what makes bone so essential for DNA typing.
  • Similar to bone, but it is used through dental records to identify a person who has been burned alive.
  • Hair is made out of a protein called keratin, which is very useful because it has three stages, when the hair is at the catagen phase, the enzyme catalase can be used to identify the person through nuclear and mitochondrial DNA testing.
  • Urine has an acid called urea, made through the metabolic process of the body through enzymes. With that, urine is looked for in fluids and stains.
  • Bibliography
  • "Forensic Science: Restriction Enzymes."Forensic Science. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2013. <http://csi-forensic-science.blogspot.ca/2011/04/restriction-enzymes.html>.
  • "Forensic Science: Restriction Enzymes."Forensic Science. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2013. <http://csi-forensic-science.blogspot.ca/2011/04/restriction-enzymes.html>.
  • Mitchell, Aric. "Forensic Importance of Enzymes | eHow." eHow | How to Videos, Articles & More - Discover the expert in you.. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2013. <http://www.ehow.com/about_6519840_forensic-importance-enzymes.html>.
  • Noureddine, Maher, and Ph.D.. "Forensic Tests for Saliva: What you should know | Forensic Science in North Carolina."Forensic Science in North Carolina | NC Indigent Defense Services Blog. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2013. <http://ncforensics.wordpress.com/2011/08/15/forensic-tests-for-saliva-what-you-should-know/>.
  • "President's DNA Initiative - DNA Analysts." National Forensic Science Technology Center . N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2013. <http://www.nfstc.org/pdi/index.htm>.
  • "Restriction Enzyme Action of EcoRI."Access Excellence @ the National Health Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2013. <http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/restriction.php>.
  • Tan, Dr. Alex. "Restriction Enzymes Used in Forensic Science | eHow." eHow | How to Videos, Articles & More - Discover the expert in you.. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2013. <http://www.ehow.com/facts_5724559_restriction-enzymes-used-forensic-science.html>.
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=drC7rR7CIBg&list=PLBF49F173D4A67E05http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=drC7rR7CIBg&list=PLBF49F173D4A67E05
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