Introduction to Semantic Web and RDF

Publish in

Documents

24 views

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 48
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Share
Description
Introduction to Semantic Web and RDF. RDF , Linked Data workshop at DANS The Hague , 28 th July, 2010, Ivan Herman, W3C. The Music site of the BBC. The Music site of the BBC. How to build such a site 1. Site editors roam the Web for new facts may discover further links while roaming
Transcript
Introduction to Semantic Web and RDF RDF, Linked Data workshop at DANS The Hague, 28th July, 2010, Ivan Herman, W3C The Music site of the BBC The Music site of the BBC How to build such a site 1.
  • Site editors roam the Web for new facts
  • may discover further links while roaming
  • They update the site manually
  • And the site gets soon out-of-date
  • How to build such a site 2.
  • Editors roam the Web for new data published on Web sites
  • “Scrape” the sites with a program to extract the information
  • Ie, write some code to incorporate the new data
  • Easily get out of date again…
  • How to build such a site 3.
  • Editors roam the Web for new data via API-s
  • Understand those…
  • input, output arguments, datatypes used, etc
  • Write some code to incorporate the new data
  • Easily get out of date again…
  • The choice of the BBC
  • Use external, public datasets
  • Wikipedia, MusicBrainz, …
  • They are available as data
  • not API-s or hidden on a Web site
  • data can be extracted using, eg, HTTP requests or standard queries
  • In short…
  • Use the Web of Data as a Content Management System
  • Use the community at large as content editors
  • And this is no secret… Data on the Web
  • There are more an more data on the Web
  • government data, health related data, general knowledge, company information, flight information, restaurants,…
  • More and more applications rely on the availability of that data
  • But… data are often in isolation, “silos” Photo credit Alex (ajagendorf25), Flickr Imagine…
  • A “Web” where
  • documents are available for download on the Internet
  • but there would be no hyperlinks among them
  • And the problem is real… Data on the Web is not enough…
  • We need a proper infrastructure for a real Web of Data
  • data is available on the Web
  • accessible via standard Web technologies
  • data are interlinked over the Web
  • ie, data can be integrated over the Web
  • This is where Semantic Web technologies come in
  • In what follows…
  • We will use a simplistic example to introduce the main Semantic Web concepts
  • The rough structure of data integration
  • Map the various data onto an abstract data representation
  • make the data independent of its internal representation…
  • Merge the resulting representations
  • Start making queries on the whole!
  • queries not possible on the individual data sets
  • We start with a book... Asimplified bookstore data (dataset “A”) 1st: export your data as a set of relations a:title The Glass Palace http://…isbn/000651409X a:year 2000 a:publisher a:city London a:author a:p_name Harper Collins a:name a:homepage http://www.amitavghosh.com Ghosh, Amitav Some notes on the exporting the data
  • Relations form a graph
  • the nodes refer to the “real” data or contain some literal
  • how the graph is represented in machine is immaterial for now
  • Some notes on the exporting the data
  • Data export does not necessarily mean physical conversion of the data
  • relations can be generated on-the-fly at query time
  • via SQL “bridges”
  • scraping HTML pages
  • extracting data from Excel sheets
  • etc.
  • One can export part of the data
  • Same book in French… Another bookstore data (dataset “F”) 2nd: export your second set of data http://…isbn/000651409X Le palais des miroirs f:original f:titre f:auteur http://…isbn/2020386682 f:traducteur f:nom f:nom Ghosh, Amitav Besse, Christianne 3rd: start merging your data a:title The Glass Palace http://…isbn/000651409X a:year 2000 a:publisher a:city London a:author Harper Collins a:p_name a:name http://…isbn/000651409X a:homepage Le palais des miroirs f:original Ghosh, Amitav http://www.amitavghosh.com f:titre f:auteur http://…isbn/2020386682 f:traducteur f:nom f:nom Ghosh, Amitav Besse, Christianne 3rd: start merging your data (cont) a:title The Glass Palace http://…isbn/000651409X a:year 2000 Same URI! a:publisher a:city London a:author Harper Collins a:p_name a:name http://…isbn/000651409X a:homepage Le palais des miroirs f:original Ghosh, Amitav http://www.amitavghosh.com f:titre f:auteur http://…isbn/2020386682 f:traducteur f:nom f:nom Ghosh, Amitav Besse, Christianne 3rd: start merging your data a:title The Glass Palace http://…isbn/000651409X a:year 2000 a:publisher a:city London a:author Harper Collins a:p_name f:original a:name f:auteur a:homepage Le palais des miroirs Ghosh, Amitav http://www.amitavghosh.com f:titre http://…isbn/2020386682 f:traducteur f:nom f:nom Ghosh, Amitav Besse, Christianne Start making queries…
  • User of data “F” can now ask queries like:
  • “give me the title of the original”
  • well, … « donnes-moi le titre de l’original »
  • This information is not in the dataset “F”…
  • …but can be retrieved by merging with dataset “A”!
  • However, more can be achieved…
  • We “feel” that a:author and f:auteur should be the same
  • But an automatic merge doest not know that!
  • Let us add some extra information to the merged data:
  • a:author same as f:auteur
  • both identify a “Person”
  • a term that a community may have already defined:
  • a “Person” is uniquely identified by his/her name and, say, homepage
  • it can be used as a “category” for certain type of resources
  • 3rd revisited: use the extra knowledge a:title The Glass Palace http://…isbn/000651409X 2000 a:year Le palais des miroirs f:original f:titre a:publisher a:city London a:author http://…isbn/2020386682 Harper Collins a:p_name f:auteur r:type f:traducteur r:type a:name http://…foaf/Person a:homepage f:nom f:nom Besse, Christianne Ghosh, Amitav http://www.amitavghosh.com Start making richer queries!
  • User of dataset “F” can now query:
  • “donnes-moi la page d’accueil de l’auteur de l’original”
  • well… “give me the home page of the original’s ‘auteur’”
  • The information is not in datasets “F” or “A”…
  • …but was made available by:
  • merging datasets “A” and datasets “F”
  • adding three simple extra statements as an extra “glue”
  • Combine with different datasets
  • Using, e.g., the “Person”, the dataset can be combined with other sources
  • For example, data in Wikipedia can be extracted using dedicated tools
  • e.g., the “dbpedia” project can extract the “infobox” information from Wikipedia already…
  • Merge with Wikipedia data a:title The Glass Palace http://…isbn/000651409X 2000 a:year Le palais des miroirs f:original f:titre a:publisher a:city London a:author http://…isbn/2020386682 Harper Collins a:p_name f:auteur r:type f:traducteur a:name r:type http://…foaf/Person a:homepage f:nom f:nom r:type Besse, Christianne Ghosh, Amitav http://www.amitavghosh.com foaf:name w:reference http://dbpedia.org/../Amitav_Ghosh Merge with Wikipedia data a:title The Glass Palace http://…isbn/000651409X 2000 a:year Le palais des miroirs f:original f:titre a:publisher a:city London a:author http://…isbn/2020386682 Harper Collins a:p_name f:auteur r:type f:traducteur a:name r:type http://…foaf/Person a:homepage f:nom f:nom r:type w:isbn Besse, Christianne Ghosh, Amitav http://www.amitavghosh.com http://dbpedia.org/../The_Glass_Palace foaf:name w:reference w:author_of http://dbpedia.org/../Amitav_Ghosh w:author_of http://dbpedia.org/../The_Hungry_Tide w:author_of http://dbpedia.org/../The_Calcutta_Chromosome Merge with Wikipedia data a:title The Glass Palace http://…isbn/000651409X 2000 a:year Le palais des miroirs f:original f:titre a:publisher a:city London a:author http://…isbn/2020386682 Harper Collins a:p_name f:auteur r:type f:traducteur a:name r:type http://…foaf/Person a:homepage f:nom f:nom r:type w:isbn Besse, Christianne Ghosh, Amitav http://www.amitavghosh.com http://dbpedia.org/../The_Glass_Palace foaf:name w:reference w:author_of http://dbpedia.org/../Amitav_Ghosh w:born_in http://dbpedia.org/../Kolkata w:author_of http://dbpedia.org/../The_Hungry_Tide w:lat w:long w:author_of http://dbpedia.org/../The_Calcutta_Chromosome Is that surprising?
  • It may look like it but, in fact, it should not be…
  • What happened via automatic means is done every day by Web users!
  • The difference: a bit of extra rigour so that machines could do this, too
  • What did we do?
  • We combined different datasets that
  • are somewhere on the web
  • are of different formats (mysql, excel sheet, etc)
  • have different names for relations
  • We could combine the data because some URI-s were identical (the ISBN-s in this case)
  • What did we do?
  • We could add some simple additional information (the “glue”), also using common terminologies that a community has produced
  • As a result, new relations could be found and retrieved
  • It could become even more powerful
  • We could add extra knowledge to the merged datasets
  • e.g., a full classification of various types of library data
  • geographical information
  • etc.
  • This is where ontologies, extra rules, etc, come in
  • ontologies/rule sets can be relatively simple and small, or huge, or anything in between…
  • Even more powerful queries can be asked as a result
  • What did we do? (cont) Manipulate Query … Applications Map, Expose, … Data represented in abstract format Data in various formats So where is the Semantic Web?
  • The Semantic Web provides technologies to make such integration possible!
  • Details: many different technologies
  • an abstract model for the relational graphs: RDF
  • add/extract RDF information to/from XML, (X)HTML: GRDDL, RDFa
  • a query language adapted for graphs: SPARQL
  • characterize the relationships and resources: RDFS, OWL, SKOS, Rules
  • applications may choose among the different technologies
  • reuse of existing “ontologies” that others have produced (FOAF in our case)
  • Using these technologies… SPARQL, Inferences … Applications RDB  RDF, GRDL, RDFa, … Data represented in RDF with extra knowledge (RDFS, SKOS, RIF, OWL,…) Data in various formats Where are we today (in a nutshell)?
  • The technologies are in place, lots of tools around
  • there is always room for improvement, of course
  • Large datasets are “published” on the Web, ie, ready for integration with others
  • Large number of vocabularies, ontologies, etc, are available in various areas
  • Everything is not rosy, of course…
  • Tools have to improve
  • scaling for very large datasets
  • quality check for data
  • etc
  • There is a lack of knowledgeable experts
  • this makes the initial “step” tedious
  • leads to a lack of understanding of the technology
  • There are also R&D issues
  • What does query/reasoning means on Web scale data?
  • How does one incorporate uncertainty information?
  • What is the granularity for access control, security, privacy…
  • What types of user interfaces should we have for a Web of Data?
  • etc.
  • Fit in the larger landscape… Courtesy of Sandro Hawke, W3C Thank you for your attention! These slides are also available on the Web: http://www.w3.org/2010/Talks/0728-TheHague-IH/
    Related Search
    We Need Your Support
    Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

    Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

    No, Thanks